Dissociation of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation and glucose uptake stimulation by mitochondrial uncoupling and hyperosmolar stress: differential sensitivities to intracellular Ca2+ and protein kinase C inhibition

N Patel, Z A Khayat, N B Ruderman, A Klip
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2001 July 27, 285 (4): 1066-70
2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) compromises ATP production within the cell by disrupting the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The resulting loss of ATP leads to an increase in glucose uptake for anaerobic generation of ATP. In L6 skeletal muscle cells, DNP increases the rate of glucose uptake by twofold. We previously showed that DNP increases cell surface levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and hexose uptake via a Ca2+-sensitive and conventional protein kinase C (cPKC)-dependent mechanism. Recently, 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been proposed to mediate the stimulation of glucose uptake by energy stressors such as exercise and hypoxia. Changes in Ca2+ and cPKC have also been invoked in the stimulation of glucose uptake by exercise and hypoxia. Here we examine whether changes in cytosolic Ca2+ or cPKC lead to activation of AMPK. We show that treatment of L6 cells with DNP (0.5 mM) or hyperosmolar stress (mannitol, 0.6 M) increased AMPK activity by 3.5-fold. AMPK activation peaked by 10-15 min prior to maximal stimulation of glucose uptake. Intracellular Ca2+ chelation and cPKC inhibition prior to treatment with DNP and hyperosmolarity significantly reduced cell surface GLUT4 levels and hexose uptake but had no effect on AMPK activation. These results illustrate a break in the relationship between AMPK activation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. Activation of AMPK does not suffice to stimulate glucose uptake in response to DNP and hyperosmolarity.

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