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Journal of Medical Virology

Mike T Wei, An K Le, Matthew S Chang, Holden Hsu, Pauline Nguyen, Jian Q Zhang, Chris Wong, Clifford Wong, Ramsey Cheung, Mindie H Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested a potential increase in the incidence of osteoporosis for patients receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), but this issue remains controversial. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 1,224 Asian chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients >18 years without baseline osteopenia/osteoporosis seen at four U.S. centers from 2008-2016. Patients were categorized into three groups-treatment naive patients who initiated therapy with TDF (1) or entecavir (ETV) (2), or untreated patients (3)...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Nadia Soudani, Miguela A Caniza, Aia Assaf-Casals, Rouba Shaker, Mireille Lteif, Yin Su, Li Tang, Imad Akel, Samar Muwakkit, Ahmad Chmaisse, Maysam Homsi, Ghassan Dbaibo, Hassan Zaraket
BACKGROUND: Pediatric cancer patients have a higher risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory viral infections than do other patient populations. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the causative viruses of respiratory infections and their burden among pediatric cancer patients in Lebanon. STUDY DESIGN: Nasopharyngeal swabs along with clinical and demographic data were collected from pediatric cancer patients presenting febrile episodes with upper respiratory tract symptoms...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Yong Huang, Bo Wang, Zhi Peng, Ni Tang, Weixian Chen
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination was considered the most powerful tool for preventation of HBV transmission from mother to infant. In 1992 a universal HBV vaccination program for infants was lauched in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the HBV Surface antigen (HBsAg) varations in immunoprophylaxis-failed infants, vaccine free infant patients and adult chronic hepatitis B(CHB) patients (without nucleoside analog treatment). Immunoprophylaxis-failed infants were recurited from two centers (Guangdong and Chongqing, representing Southern China)...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Shahram Barfi, Vahdat Poortahmasebi, Haleh Ofoghi, Mohammad Farahmand, Saeid Ghorbani, Mehdi Norouzi, Leila Ghalichi, Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri
BACKGROUND: Responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccine among Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) patients has not been evaluated worldwide. We aimed to determine the anti-HBs antibody duration in autistic and healthy children few years after primary vaccination and evaluate their immunological memory against Hepatitis B virus (HBV( vaccine with booster dose administration. METHODS: 107 and 147 HBsAg-negative children from ASD and normal population were recruited, respectively...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Chao Song, Zhiming Shan, Fengfeng Kang, Weixing Li
BACKGROUND: In external quality assessments (EQA), it is important and necessary for participants to return authentic test results. However, to obtain better evaluation results, some laboratories have lacked confidence that their own and have preferred to rely upon the test results in surrounding laboratories. These violations covered up errors during testing and affected the authenticity of the returned data. The occurrence of violations in EQA launched by different EQA organizers is still unknown, because these violations were carried out in private...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Helal F Hetta, Asmaa M Zahran, Shima G Mansor, Mohamed O Abdel-Malek, Mohamed A Mekky, Wael A Abbas
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a pivotal role in tumor immunity and induction of immune tolerance to a variety of antitumor effectors, including T-lymphocytes. Herein, we tried to evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of MDSCs and different lymphocyte subsets in HCV- related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Four groups were enrolled; chronic HCV (CHC, n=40), HCV related liver cirrhosis (HCV-LC, n= 40), HCV related HCC (HCV-HCC, n=75) and healthy control group (n=20)...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Alberto Talaya, Estela Giménez, José Luis Piñana, Eliseo Albert, Juan Carlos Hernández-Boluda, Ariadna Pérez, Ignacio Torres, Carlos Solano, David Navarro
It has been reported that low plasma cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA loads are associated with an increased risk of overall mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Utilizing a conservative strategy for initiation of preemptive antiviral therapy (PET) (>1,500 IU/ml), we characterized the virological features of spontaneously-resolving episodes of CMV DNAemia and assessed their impact on mortality through the first year after transplantation. We reviewed the CMV DNA PCR results and clinical charts of 230 consecutive adult patients who underwent T-cell replete allo-HSCT at our center...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Mina Nakauchi, Ikuyo Takayama, Hitoshi Takahashi, Shohei Semba, Shinji Saito, Hideyuki Kubo, Atsushi Kaida, Kunihiro Oba, Shiho Nagata, Takato Odagiri, Tsutomu Kageyama
Human rhinoviruses (RVs) belong to the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae, and are classified into RV-A, -B, and -C species. Two assays were developed to detect RVs by a real-time fluorescent reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification method: one was designed based on the 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of RV-A and B, and the other was designed based on the 5'-UTR of RV-C. The competence of both assays for the diagnosis of RV infection was tested using isolated viruses and compared with real-time RT-PCR assays on clinical specimens...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
João Piedade, Johan Nordgren, Filipa Esteves, Aida Esteves, Rosa Teodósio, Lennart Svensson, Claudia Istrate
Norovirus (NoV) and rotavirus group A (RVA) are major agents of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. This study aimed to investigate their epidemiological profile in Portuguese elderly living in long-term care facilities and to assess the host genetic factors mediating infection susceptibility. From November 2013 to June 2015, 636 faecal specimens from 169 elderly, mainly asymptomatic, living in nursing homes in Greater Lisbon and Faro district, Portugal, were collected. NoV and RVA were detected by real-time PCR and NoV genotyped by phylogenetic analysis...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Gerald Theillet, Gilda Grard, Mathilde Galla, Carine Maisse, Margot Enguehard, Marie Cresson, Pascal Dalbon, Isabelle Leparc Leparc-Goffart, Frederic Bedin
The incidence of arbovirus infections has increased dramatically in recent decades, affecting hundreds of millions of people each year. The Togaviridae family includes the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which is typically transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and causes a wide range of symptoms from flu-like fever to severe arthralgia. Although conventional diagnostic tests can provide early diagnosis of CHIKV infections, access to these tests is often limited in developing countries. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop efficient, affordable, simple, rapid, and robust diagnostic tools that can be used in point-of-care settings...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Ali Ghasemi, Maryam Zadsar, Mojgan Shaiegan, Shahram Samiei, Ali Namvar, Mahboobeh Rasouli, Molood Moosanejad
Recently, human platelet antigens (HPAs) polymorphisms are found to play a role in susceptibility to HCV infection and fibrosis progression. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possible association between HPAs polymorphisms with liver fibrosis progression in HCV patients. HPAs polymorphisms genotyping was performed in HCV patients (n=71) by SSP-PCR. Fibrosis progression was evaluated using the Metavir scoring system & liver biopsy, and the patients were assigned to two groups, namely, G1 (n = 35) that included patients with F1 (portal fibrosis without septa) or F2 (few septa) and G2 (n = 36) that comprised patients with F3 (numerous septa) or F4 (cirrhosis)...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Anwar M Hashem, Tagreed L Al-Subhi, Nassrin A Badroon, Ahmed M Hassan, Leena Hussein M Bajrai, Talib M Banassir, Khalid M Alquthami, Esam I Azhar
More than two million Muslims visit Makkah, Saudi Arabia, annually to perform the religious rituals of Hajj where the risk of spreading respiratory infections is very common. The aim here was to screen symptomatic pilgrims for Middle East respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and other viral etiologies. Thus, 132 nasopharyngeal samples were collected from pilgrims presenting with acute respiratory symptoms at the healthcare facilities in the holy sites during the five-days of the 2014 Hajj season. Samples were tested using RT-PCR and microarray...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Emmanouil Antalis, Aris Spathis, Christine Kottaridi, Athanasios Kossyvakis, Kalliopi Pastellas, Konstantinos Tsakalos, Andreas Mentis, Christos Kroupis, Sotirios Tsiodras
BACKGROUND: Th17 cytokines are associated with modulation of inflammation and may be beneficial in clearing influenza infection in experimental models. The Th17 cytokine profile was evaluated in a pilot study of respiratory virus infections. METHODS: Consecutive patients with symptoms of respiratory tract infection visiting the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital during the winter influenza season of 2014 to 2015 were evaluated. CLART PneumoVir kit, (GENOMICA, Madrid, Spain) was used for viral detection of all known respiratory viruses...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Yubin Li, Wanshan Liu, Yinling Zhu, Liping Diao
In this work, we report a fluorescence method for homogeneous detection of influenza A (H1N1) DNA sequence based on G-quadruplex-NMM complex and Assistance DNA (A-DNA) inhibition. The quadruplex-based functional DNA (QBF-DNA), composed of complementary probe to the target H1N1 DNA sequence and G-rich fragment, was designed as the signal DNA. The A-DNA consisted of two parts, one part was complementary to target H1N1 DNA and the other part was complementary to the signal DNA. In the absence of target H1N1 DNA, the G-rich fragment of QBF-DNA can form G-quadruplex-NMM complex, which outputted a fluorescent signal...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Fanbiao Mei, Jingjing Ren, Long Long, Jilin Li, Kezhi Li, Haizhou Liu, Yanping Tang, Xiang Fang, Hanghang Wu, Chanchan Xiao, Tianren Huang, Wei Deng
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the differences between next-generation sequencing(NGS) and cloning-based sequencing(CBS) in HBX quasispecies research and primitively investigate the relationship between the dominant HBX quasispecies and HCC. METHODS: A total of 12 serum samples were collected. Serum HBV DNA was extracted and the HBV X region (HBX) was amplified by nested PCR. The PCR products were simultaneously tested with NGS and CBS to detect quasispecies of the HBX...
February 3, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Shujuan Lv, Suping Li, Zifeng Wang, Jing Xia
The secretion of IFN-α is impaired during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. DNA sequences purified from distinct viruses, e.g., HBV versus members of Herpesviridae, have been shown to differ in their interferon alpha (IFN-α) signaling properties. The present study found that DNA from HBV inhibited, while DNA from members of Herpesviridae induced, the expression of IFN-α. Furthermore, stimulatory CpG sequences derived from these DNA viruses could induce the secretion of IFN-α, while inhibitory polyG oligonucleotide sequences derived from these DNA viruses could inhibit CpG-induced IFN-α secretion...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Yan He, Yugang Lu, Yang Shen, Feixiang Wu, Xuewu Xu, Erliang Kong, Zhangxiang Huang, Yuming Sun, Weifeng Yu
BACKGROUND: Opioid-primed relapse is a global burden. Although current strategies have improved, optimal therapy is urgently needed. METHODS: A recombinant adenovirus (Ad-NEP) expressing β-endorphin (β-EP) was designed and injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) into the right lateral ventricle in rats. Spatial and temporal β-EP expression in the lateral ventricle wall, subventricular zone and adjacent choroid plexus and the β-EP concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were observed during a 21-d period...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Manyuan Bai, Hu Dong, Xin Su, Ye Jin, Shiqi Sun, Yingpeng Zhang, Yunshang Yang, Huichen Guo
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute and febrile infectious disease, which can cause great economic losses. Virus-like particles (VLPs) as an advantageous antigen can induce significant specific immune response. In order to improve immunity of VLPs, especially, make it induce persistent immune response, the hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) as a potential nano-adjuvant were synthesized and loaded the FMDV VLPs. They were injected into guinea pigs and the specific immune response was detected...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Sumi Chetry, Siraj A Khan, Prafulla Dutta, Basumoti Apum, Pranita S Medhi, Durlov C Saikia, Temjen Temsu, Lalhming Mawii, Bichitrani C Marak
Dengue is a rapidly spreading acute arboviral infection transmitted through a human and Aedes mosquito cycle. Though Northeast region of India has been experiencing dengue outbreaks regularly for over a decade, reports on genetic characterization of the virus from this region are limited. The present study was undertaken to detect the genotype and genetic composition of circulating DENV in this region. Blood samples were collected from 918 suspected dengue patients of five Northeast Indian states. Serological investigations viz...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Daiki Kobayashi, Mayuko Saito, Yuji Heike, Kyoko Yokota, Hiroko Arioka, Hitoshi Oshitani
A prospective matched case-control study was conducted to evaluate associations between dietary histories, including consumption of bivalves, diarrhoea, and norovirus positive diarrhoea in adult ambulatory patients at an outpatient clinic of a hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Ambulatory cases with diarrhoea were matched with non-diarrheal control patients, who visited the same clinic. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain patients' information, including histories of food consumption and clinical information...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
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