Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Period prevalence of uveitis in human T-lymphotropic virus 1 carriers versus noncarriers in a highly endemic area: The Nagasaki Islands Study.

The magnitude of the effect of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection on uveitis remains unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a highly endemic area of HTLV-1 in Japan. The study included 4265 residents (men, 39.2%), mostly middle-aged and older individuals with a mean age of 69.9 years, who participated in our surveys between April 2016 and September 2022. We identified HTLV-1 carriers by screening using chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays and confirmatory tests, and the proportion of carriers was 16.1%. Participants with uveitis were determined from the medical records of all hospitals and clinics where certified ophthalmologists practiced. We conducted logistic regression analyses in an age- and sex-adjusted model to compute the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of uveitis according to HTLV-1 infection status. Thirty-two (0.8%) participants had uveitis. For HTLV-1 carriers, the age- and sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) of uveitis was 3.27 (1.57-6.72) compared with noncarriers. In conclusion, HTLV-1 infection was associated with a higher risk of uveitis among mostly middle-aged and older Japanese residents in a highly endemic HTLV-1 area. Our findings suggest that physicians who treat HTLV-1 carriers should assess ocular symptoms, and those who diagnose patients with uveitis should consider HTLV-1 infection.

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