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Assessing herpes zoster vaccine efficacy in patients with diabetes: A community-based cohort study.

The effectiveness of herpes zoster (HZ) vaccines in patients with diabetes over the age of 50 remains an active area of research. Utilizing a real-world database from the US community, this study spanning from 2006 to 2023, aimed to evaluate the impact of HZ vaccination on newly diagnosed diabetes patients who received an HZ vaccination within 1 year of diagnosis. Exclusion criteria were established to omit patients with immune deficiencies. The cohort consisted of 53 885 patients, with an average age of 63.5 years, including 43% females and 58% whites. After implementing 1:1 propensity score matching for age, sex, race, comorbidities, diabetes medication, and hemoglobin A1c to ensure comparability, the study population was further stratified into four groups: N1 comparing any HZ vaccination to non-HZ vaccination (53 882 matched pairs), N2 for Shingrix versus non-HZ vaccination (16 665 matched pairs), N3 for Zostavax versus non-HZ vaccination (12 058 matched pairs), and N4 for Shingrix versus Zostavax (11 721 matched pairs). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed a hazard ratio (HR) for HZ incidence post any HZ vaccination of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.01). Additional analyses yielded HRs of 1.12 (95% CI: 0.93-1.34) for Shingrix versus non-HZ vaccine, 1.02 (95% CI: 0.86-1.20) for Zostavax versus non-HZ vaccine, and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.87-1.29) for Shingrix versus Zostavax. Subgroup analyses across age, sex, and follow-up duration also showed no significant differences. These findings underscore the lack of a significant benefit from HZ vaccination in newly diagnosed diabetes patients aged over 50, highlighting the necessity for further prospective research.

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