Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Major changes in prevalence and genotypes of rotavirus diarrhea in Beijing, China after RV5 rotavirus vaccine introduction.

To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of group A rotavirus (RVA) diarrhea in Beijing between 2019 and 2022 and evaluate the effectiveness of the RV5 vaccine. Stool specimens were collected from patients with acute diarrhea, and RVA was detected and genotyped. The whole genome of RVA was sequenced by fragment amplification and Sanger sequencing. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods. Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the characteristics of RVA diarrhea. Test-negative design was used to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the RV5. Compared with 2011-2018, RVA-positive rates in patients with acute diarrhea under 5 years of age and adults decreased significantly between 2019 and 2022, to 9.45% (249/634) and 3.66% (220/6016), respectively. The predominant genotype of RVA had changed from G9-VIP[8]-III between 2019 and 2021 to G8-VP[8]-III in 2022, and P[8] sequences from G8-VP[8]-III strains formed a new branch called P[8]-IIIb. The complete genotype of G8-VP[8]-III was G8-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. The VE of 3 doses of RV5 was 90.4% (95% CI: 28.8%-98.7%) against RVA diarrhea. The prevalence of RVA decreased in Beijing between 2019 and 2022, and the predominant genotype changed to G8P[8], which may be related to RV5 vaccination. Continuous surveillance is necessary to evaluate vaccine effectiveness and improve vaccine design.

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