Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Human coronavirus 229E inactivation on porous and nonporous materials using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma.

Viruses can spread through contaminated aerosols and contaminated surface materials, and effective disinfection techniques are essential for virus inactivation. Nonthermal plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can effectively inactivate the coronavirus. We aim to interpret the coronavirus inactivation level and mechanism of surface interaction with materials with and without dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment. Nonthermal plasma, particularly surface-type DBD plasma, can inactivate human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) on porous (paper, wood, mask) and nonporous (plastic, stainless steel, glass, Cu) materials. Virus inactivation was analyzed using a 50% tissue culture infectivity dose (TCID50 ) using cell line, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. Surfaces contaminated with HCoV-229E were treated at different time intervals (0-5 h) with and without plasma exposure (natural decay in ambient air conditions). HCoV-229E persistence conformed to the following order: plastic > cover glass > stainless steel > mask > wood > paper > Cu with and without plasma exposure. HCoV-229E was more stable in plastic, cover glass, and stainless steel in 5 h, and the viable virus titer gradually decreased from its initial log10 order of 6.892 to 1.72, 1.53, and 1.32 TCID50 /mL, respectively, under plasma exposure. No virus was observed in Cu after treatment for 5 h. The use of airflow, ambient nitrogen, and argon did not promote virus inactivation. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated a low expression level of spike protein (fluorescence intensity) during plasma treatment and in E and M genes expression compared with the virus control.

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