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Lipid and glucose abnormalities and associated factors among children living with HIV in Asia.

BACKGROUND: Children living with HIV (CLHIV) on prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at risk for lipid and glucose abnormalities. Prevalence and associated factors were assessed in a multicentre, Asian longitudinal paediatric cohort.

METHODS: CLHIV were considered to have lipid or glucose abnormalities if they had total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ≤35 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ≥100 mg/dL, triglycerides (TG) ≥110 mg/dL, or fasting glucose >110 mg/dL. Factors associated with lipid and glucose abnormalities were assessed by logistic regression.

RESULTS: Of 951 CLHIV, 52% were male with a median age of 8.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-12.0) years at ART start and 15.0 (IQR 12.0-18.0) years at their last clinic visit. 89% acquired HIV perinatally, and 30% had ever used protease inhibitors (PIs). Overall, 225 (24%) had hypercholesterolemia, 105 (27%) low HDL, 213 (58%) high LDL, 369 (54%) hypertriglyceridemia, and 130 (17%) hyperglycemia. Hypercholesterolemia was more likely among females (versus males, aOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.40-2.67). Current PIs use was associated with hypercholesterolemia (current use: aOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.09-2.20); low HDL (current use: aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.94-5.15; prior use: aOR 10.55, 95% CI 2.53-43.95); hypertriglyceridemia (current use: aOR 3.90, 95% CI 2.65-5.74; prior use: aOR 2.89, 95% CI 1.31-6.39); high LDL (current use: aOR 1.74, 95% CI 1.09-2.76); and hyperglycemia (prior use: aOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.42-4.18).

CONCLUSION: More than half and one-fifth of CLHIV have dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, respectively. Routine paediatric HIV care should include metabolic monitoring. The association between PIs use and dyslipidemia emphasizes the importance of rapidly transitioning to integrase inhibitor-containing regimens.

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