[New aspects of rapid sequence induction including treatment of pulmonary aspiration]

T Mencke, A Zitzmann, D A Reuter
Der Anaesthesist 2021, 70 (2): 171-184
Pulmonary aspiration of solid components leads to displacement of the tracheobronchial tree, the aspiration of acidic gastric juices to chemical pneumonitis (Mendelson's syndrome) and the aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions or gastrointestinal pathogens to aspiration pneumonia. Principally, pulmonary aspiration can occur at any stage of anesthesia. In the clinical routine the aim must therefore be to identify those patients who have an increased risk of aspiration. When this is successful, measures can be taken to reduce the risk; these can be regional anaesthesia or the performance of general anaesthesia as rapid sequence induction (RSI). If severe pulmonary aspiration occurs despite all preventive measures, mostly during induction of anaesthesia, extensive experience and rapid action are necessary. This can only be achieved if the induction to RSI is performed by three persons with supervision of the trainee anaesthetist by a consultant anaesthetist.

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