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Prevalence and Control of Dyslipidemia in Patients Referred for High Blood Pressure: The Disregarded "Double-Trouble" Lipid Profile in Overweight/Obese

Francesco Spannella, Federico Giulietti, Chiara Di Pentima, Riccardo Sarzani
Advances in Therapy 2019 April 5

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the prevalence and control of dyslipidemia in a wide sample of patients referred to our ESH "Hypertension Excellence Centre" for high blood pressure (BP). Furthermore, we evaluated the role of adiposity on the serum lipid profile.

METHODS: Observational study on 1219 consecutive outpatients with valid ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) referred for high BP. Patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 were defined as overweight/obese (OW/OB). Dyslipidemia and the control rates of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) were defined according to the 2016 ESC/EAS Guidelines.

RESULTS: Mean age: 56.5 ± 13.7 years. Male prevalence: 55.6%. OW/OB patients were 70.2%. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 91.1%. Lipid-lowering drugs were taken by 23.1% of patients. Patients with controlled LDLc comprised 28.5%, while BP was controlled in 41.6% of patients. Only 12.4% of patients had both 24-h BP and LDLc controlled at the same time. The higher the cardiovascular (CV) risk was, the lower was the rate of LDLc control (p < 0.001). Patients in secondary prevention had worse LDLc control than patients in primary prevention (OR 3.5 for uncontrolled LDLc, p < 0.001). OW/OB showed a more atherogenic lipid profile, characterized by lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) (p < 0.001), higher non-HDLc (p = 0.006), higher triglycerides (p < 0.001), higher non-HDLc/HDLc (p < 0.001) and higher (non-HDLc + non-LDLc) (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Dyslipidemia is still too often neglected in hypertensives, especially in patients at higher CV risk. OW/OB hypertensives have a "double-trouble" atherogenic lipid pattern likely driven by adiposity. We encourage a comprehensive evaluation of the lipid profile in all hypertensives, especially if they are OW/OB, to correctly assess their CV risk and improve their management.

FUNDING: Article processing charges funded by Servier SpA.


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