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Long-term outcome following stent reconstruction of the aortic bifurcation and the role of geometric determinants.

We assessed the long-term patency of kissing stent reconstruction of the aortoiliac bifurcation and identified variables that may influence it. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with stent-reconstruction procedures of the aortoiliac bifurcation from January 1998 through June 2005. The impact of demographic variables, vascular risk factors, disease location and characteristics, stent material and design, and stenting configuration on stent patency was assessed using univariate and multivariate analysis. In particular, we evaluated the effect of geometric mismatch between the protruding segment of the stents and the distal aortic lumen. Sixty-six patients underwent aortobi-iliac stent reconstruction. Indications were bifurcation or bilateral proximal iliac disease in 52 patients and unilateral ostial disease requiring contralateral protection in 14 patients. Limited disease (TASC A and B) was present in 40 limbs in 19 patients; extensive/diffuse disease (TASC C and D) was present in 78 limbs in 47 patients. Complete occlusions were present in 37 limbs in 28 patients (bilateral in nine patients). Self-expanding stents were used in 56 procedures and balloon-expandable stents in 10. Crossing configuration was used in 43 procedures, while abutting configuration was used in 23 procedures. Technical success was achieved in 62 patients (94%), with all four failures due to inability to cross a chronically occluded limb. Three of these patients underwent aortomono-iliac stenting with a crossover femoral-femoral bypass graft, with the remaining one opting for no further interventions. Median combined follow-up was 37 +/- 27 months (range 0-102). Hemodynamically significant restenosis developed in nine patients (14%). The management of restenosis was endovascular in eight patients and was successful in all (balloon dilation in four, restenting in three, thrombolysis and stenting in one) and operative in one patient who developed aortic occlusion and underwent aortobifemoral grafting. Survival table analysis showed primary and assisted patency rates at 4 years of 81% and 94%, respectively. The mortality rate during follow-up was 19 (cardiac cause in eight, pulmonary cause in three, and malignancy in five). Univariate analysis showed radial mismatch (aortic lumen dead space around the protruding segment of the stents), female gender, prior occlusion, and residual stenosis to be significant predictors of restenosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed radial mismatch to be the only significant determinant of restenosis, although the statistical power of the model was limited by the small number of restenoses. Stent reconstruction of the aortoiliac bifurcation for occlusive disease is effective and durable, even with complex aortoiliac disease and long segment occlusions. Most restenoses are amenable to endovascular treatment, with excellent long-term assisted patency. Geometric variables related to individual aortic anatomy and disease pattern (patient-dependent) and stenting configuration (operator-dependent) may have an impact on long-term patency.

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