Oral administration of orthovanadate and Trigonella foenum graecum seed power restore the activities of mitochondrial enzymes in tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

Shalini Thakran, Salimuddin, Najma Z Baquer
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 2003, 247 (1-2): 45-53
The effect of oral administration of sodium orthovanadate (SOV) and Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP), a medicinal plant used extensively in Asia, on the mitochondrial metabolism in the alloxan diabetic rats has been investigated. Rats were injected with alloxan monohydrate (20 mg/100 g body wt) or vehicle (Na-acetate buffer), the former were treated with either 2 IU insulin i.p., 0.6 mg/ml SOV ad libitum, 5% TSP ad libitum, and a combination of 0.2% SOV and 5% TSP ad libitum for 21 days. Selected rate-limiting enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, hydrogen shuttle system, ketone body metabolism, amino acid metabolism and urea cycle were measured in the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions of liver, kidney and brain tissues of the experimental rats. Majority of the mitochondrial enzymes in the tissues of the diabetic rats had significantly higher activities compared to the control rats. Similarly, the activities of mitochondrial and cytosolic aminotransferases and arginase were significantly higher in liver and kidney tissues of the diabetic rats. The separate administrations of SOV and TSP to diabetic rats were able to restore the activities of these enzymes to control values. The lower dose of SOV (0.2%) administered in combination with TSP to diabetic rats lowered the enzyme activities more significantly than when given in a higher dose (0.6%) separately. This is the first report of the effective combined action of oral SOV and TSP in ameliorating the altered mitochondrial enzyme activities during experimental type-1 diabetes. Our novel combined oral administration of SOV and TSP to diabetic rats thus conclusively proves as a possible method to minimize potential vanadate toxicity without compromising its positive effects in the therapy of experimental type-1 diabetes.

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