JOURNAL ARTICLE

4-Aminopyridine reverses saxitoxin (STX)- and tetrodotoxin (TTX)-induced cardiorespiratory depression in chronically instrumented guinea pigs

F C Chang, D L Spriggs, B J Benton, S A Keller, B R Capacio
Fundamental and Applied Toxicology: Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology 1997, 38 (1): 75-88
9268607
The extent to which cardiorespiratory infirmity and other sublethal effects of saxitoxin (STX) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) can be reversed by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) was investigated in guinea pigs chronically instrumented for the concurrent electrophysiological recordings of electrocorticogram (ECoG), diaphragmatic electromyogram (DEMG), Lead II electrocardiogram, and neck skeletal muscle electromyogram. Animals were intoxicated with either STX or TTX (2 and 3 microg/kg, im) to produce a state of progressive cardiorespiratory depression (depicted by decreasing DEMG amplitude, bradypnea, and bradycardia). At the point where cardiorespiratory performance was most seriously compromised (approximately 30 min posttoxin), 4-AP (1 or 2 mg/kg, im) was administered. The therapeutic effect of 4-AP was striking in that, within minutes, the toxin-induced diaphragmatic blockade, bradypnea, bradycardia, and depressed cortical activity were all restored to a level either comparable to, or surpassing, that of control. The optimal 4-AP dose level was determined to be 2 mg/kg (im) based on analyses of cardiorespiratory activity profiles throughout the course of intoxication and 4-AP treatment. At the dose levels (either 1 or 2 mg/kg) used to restore ventilatory function and cardiovascular performance, 4-AP produced no sign of seizures and convulsions. Although less serious secondary effects such as cortical excitant/arousal effect (indicated by ECoG power spectral analysis) and transient periods of skeletal muscle fasciculation were observed, these events were of minor concern particularly in view of the remarkable therapeutic effects of 4-AP.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
9268607
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.