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Acta Tropica 2024 March 23
UNLABELLED: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne disease characterized by skin lesions that can evolve into high-magnitude ulcerated lesions. Thus, this study aimed to develop an innovative nanoemulsion (NE) with clove oil, Poloxamer® 407, and multiple drugs, such as amphotericin B (AmB) and paromomycin (PM), for use in the topical treatment of CL.

METHODS: Droplet size, morphology, drug content, stability, in vitro release profile, in vitro cytotoxicity on RAW 264.7 macrophages, and antileishmanial activity using axenic amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis were assessed for NEs.

RESULTS: After optimizing the formulation parameters, such as the concentration of clove oil and drugs, using an experimental design, it was possible to obtain a NE with an average droplet size of 40 nm and a polydispersion index of 0.3, and these parameters were maintained throughout the 365 days. Furthermore, the NE showed stability of AmB and PM content for 180 days under refrigeration (4°C), presented a pH compatible with the skin, and released modified AmB and PM. NE showed the same toxicity as free AmB and higher toxicity than free PM against RAW 264.7 macrophages. The same activity as free AmB, and higher activity than free PM against amastigotes L. amazonensis.

CONCLUSION: It is possible to develop a NE for the treatment of CL; however, complementary studies regarding the antileishmanial activity of NE should be carried out.

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