Usman Ahmed, Yasodha Sivasothy, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Siti Mariam Abdul Wahab, Khalijah Awang, Muhamad Aqmal Othman, Ayaz Anwar
Acanthamoeba castellanii is an opportunistic free-living amoeba (FLA) pathogen which can cause fatal central nervous system (CNS) infection granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and potentially blinding ocular infection Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Acanthamoeba species remain a challenging protist to treat due to the unavailability of safe and effective therapeutic drugs and their ability to protect themselves in the cyst stage. Natural products and their secondary metabolites play a pivotal role in drug discovery against various pathogenic microorganisms...
September 30, 2023: Acta Tropica
Cecilia Díaz, Marcela Serna-Gonzalez, Arturo Chang-Castillo, Bruno Lomonte, Fabián Bonilla, Adriana Alfaro-Chinchilla, Felipe Triana, Mahmood Sasa
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate the potential differences in the venom peptide sequences of three Tityus species from Costa Rican rainforests: T. jaimei, T. championi and T. dedoslargos, compared to T. cf. asthenes from Colombia, which could explain the low level of scorpionism in Costa Rica, evidenced by the lack of epidemiological data. METHODOLOGY: We applied venom proteomics of peptides purified by RP-HPLC and compared the obtained sequences from venoms of these Tityus species to the sequences previously identified from Tityus inhabiting other Central and South American regions...
September 28, 2023: Acta Tropica
Fernanda do Carmo Magalhães, João Marcelo Peixoto Moreira, Michelle Carvalho de Rezende, Vivian Favero, Carlos Graeff-Teixeira, Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho, Mariângela Carneiro, Stefan Michael Geiger, Deborah Negrão-Corrêa
Intestinal schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease that affects public health systems worldwide. Control interventions to reduce morbidity primarily involve the diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals. However, the recommended Kato-Katz (KK) parasitological method shows low sensitivity in individuals with low parasite loads and is not useful for monitoring elimination of parasite transmission at later stages. In the current study, we evaluated the accuracy of serum reactivity levels of different immunoglobulin isotypes in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), utilizing Schistosoma mansoni crude extracts, with the aim to improve the diagnosis of infected individuals with low parasite loads...
September 27, 2023: Acta Tropica
Núbia Nunes de Souza, Renata Luiz Ursine, Dardiane Santos Cruz, Emanuelle de Moura Santos Xavier, Lorena Dos Reis Pereira Queiroz, Luiz Alberto Dolabela Falcão, Walter Santos de Araújo, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo, Maria Norma Melo, Thallyta Maria Vieira
A wide variety of mammals, including domestic and wild species, have been considered potential hosts and reservoirs for Leishmania. Bats have longevity, dispersal capacity, and adaptability to synotropic environments, characteristics that may favor their role in maintaining the life cycle of parasites. Therefore, the objective of this study was to carry out a worldwide systematic review of the occurrence of Leishmania species in bats, as well as to identify associations between eating habits and the type of sample collected with the occurrence of the infection...
September 26, 2023: Acta Tropica
Duriyang Narapakdeesakul, Theerakamol Pengsakul, Mutchamon Kaewparuehaschai, Salintorn Thongsahuan, Sopavadee Moonmake, Paisin Lekcharoen, Suchansa Thanee, Sittiporn Pattaradilokrat, Morakot Kaewthamasorn
Despite the natural occurrences of human infections by Plasmodium knowlesi, P. cynomolgi, P. inui, and P. fieldi in Thailand, investigating the prevalence and genetic diversity of the zoonotic simian malaria parasites in macaque populations has been limited to certain areas. To address this gap, a total of 560 long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and 20 southern pig-tailed macaques (M. nemestrina) were captured from 15 locations across 10 provinces throughout Thailand between 2018 and 2021 for investigation of malaria, as were 15 human samples residing in two simian-malaria endemic provinces, namely Songkhla and Satun, who exhibited malaria-like symptoms...
September 22, 2023: Acta Tropica
Suttipat Srisutham, Paweesuda Rattanakoch, Kaewkanha Kijprasong, Rungniran Sugaram, Nantanat Kantaratanakul, Theerarak Srinulgray, Arjen M Dondorp, Mallika Imwong
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of malaria infection in humans remains challenging, further complicated by mixed Plasmodium species infections, potentially altering disease severity and morbidity. To facilitate appropriate control measures and treatment, rapid, sensitive, and specific detection assays, including those for the second minor species, would be required. This study aimed to develop a multiplex high-resolution melting (hexaplex PCR-HRM) assay with seven distinct peaks corresponding to five Plasmodium species of the Plasmodium genus, and an internal control to limit false negatives providing quality assurance testing results...
September 20, 2023: Acta Tropica
Li Hu, Guodian Xiong, Yae Zhao, Rong Chai, Jiaxuan Xie, Yuyao Xiao, Yue Du, Juan Teng, Wanyu Zhang, Chenglin Guan
Accurate classification and identification of mosquitoes are essential for the prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study, adult mosquitoes were collected from 15 cities across 14 provinces in China. They were identified morphologically with the dominant species determined. Furthermore, representative samples were identified at the molecular level based on rDNA 28S D5. In total, 880 adult mosquitoes were collected belonging to Culex (266), Aedes (473), Armigeres (13), and Anopheles (5)...
September 18, 2023: Acta Tropica
Haohao Sun, Sibo Wang, Wenbo Tan, Ye Li, Qian Ren, Yaqing Liu, Yiping Huang, Chenhui Shi, Jing Li
Osseous cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a rare disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, which is characterized by high morbidity, disability, and mortality. However, it is severely neglected due to its mainly regional epidemic. The development of osseous CE is usually accompanied by severe bone erosion and destruction at the site of infection; however, there is a gap in research on the mechanism of this phenomenon. The current treatment for this disease is single-sided, ineffective, and has a high rate of disability and recurrence...
September 16, 2023: Acta Tropica
José Roberto Vargas-Villanueva, Filiberto Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Mariana Garza-Ontiveros, Sendar Daniel Nery-Flores, Lizeth Guadalupe Campos-Múzquiz, Dagoberto Vazquez-Obregón, Raul Rodriguez-Herrera, Lissethe Palomo-Ligas
Giardia lamblia is a globally distributed protozoan parasite that causes intestinal disease. Recently, there is an increase in refractory cases of giardiasis to chemotherapeutic agents, and drugs available cause side effects that may limit its use or cause therapeutic non-compliance. Therefore, search for alternative and less harmful drugs to treat giardiasis is an important task. In this sense, resveratrol (RSV) is a polyphenol with a wide range of pharmacological effects such as antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant...
September 16, 2023: Acta Tropica
Shumaila Naz, Aiman Aroosh, Naeem Raza, Arshad Islam, Anam Fatima, Yusuf Ozbel, Seray Toz, Obaid Hayat, Shahid Waseem
Millions of people worldwide are affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a disease that has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Understanding the immune responses responsible for tissue damage or the process of lesion healing plays a pivotal role in shaping optimal treatment strategies. In this study, we investigated immunological phenotypes for three groups: glucantime treated (n=30) and untreated (n=30) CL patients infected with Leishmania tropica (L. tropica), and healthy controls (n=20). T-lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+), and B lymphocytes (CD14+ and CD19+) were isolated using antibody-conjugated microbeads and magnetic field isolation to achieve high purity...
September 15, 2023: Acta Tropica
Debashis Ghosh, Md Utba Rashid, Soumik Kha Sagar, Md Rasel Uddin, Shomik Maruf, Prakash Ghosh, Rajashree Chowdhury, Md Abu Rahat, Md Nazmul Islam, M M Aktaruzzaman, Abu Nayeem Mohammad Sohel, Megha Raj Banjara, Axel Kroeger, Abraham Aseffa, Dinesh Mondal
The study aimed to explore epidemiological, serological, and entomological aspects of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in suspected new VL foci and assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the community living in the alleged new VL foci. The study investigated new visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases reported between 2019 and 2020 in four sub-districts (Dharmapasha, Hakimpur, Islampur and Savar) where we tested 560 members using the rK39 rapid test and conducted vector collections in six neighbouring houses of the index cases to assess sandfly density and distribution, examined sandflies' infection, and determined the spatial relationship with VL infection...
September 14, 2023: Acta Tropica
Loyane Bertagnolli Coutinho, Mário Cézar de Oliveira, Ester Cristina Borges Araujo, Flávia Batista Ferreira França, Marcos Paulo Oliveira Almeida, Yusmaris Cariaco, Paulo Czarnewski, Neide Maria Silva
Congenital toxoplasmosis may cause abortion, neonatal death, or foetal abnormalities. Despite little information from human studies, a genetic influence over congenital disease was demonstrated and, host genome have been implicated to resistance/susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii infection in both human and mice. It was previously shown that BALB/c mice (H2d ) were more resistant to congenital toxoplasmosis than C57BL/6 mice (H2b ). However, it is unclear whether these differences are attributable to the MHC haplotype or to other components of the mouse's genetic background...
September 14, 2023: Acta Tropica
A C Montes de Oca-Aguilar, M I Pavón-Mendez, K B López-Ávila, E I Sosa-Bibiano, E A Rebollar-Téllez, J A Palacio-Vargas, E A Fernández-Figueroa, E N Loría-Cervera
Could tropical forest conversion shape sand fly (Diptera: Phlebotominae) biting rhythms and Leishmania infection rates? Using a Shannon trap, we estimated the bite rate and infection prevalence among anthropophilic sand flies at sites with different land use in southern Mexico. We estimated the expected monthly infection rate of the Leishmania parasite along the gradient and generated information on the biting rhythm of sand flies in a poorly characterized cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic region. We used generalized mixed linear and mixed additives models to evaluate differences in the biting rate, nocturnal activity, and inoculation rate of female sand flies, as well as their relationship with the loss of forest cover and environmental disparities recorded throughout the study area...
September 9, 2023: Acta Tropica
Raweewan Sangsri, Kiattawee Choowongkomon, Runch Tuntipaiboontana, Rungniran Sugaram, Patcharida Boondej, Prayuth Sudathip, Arjen M Dondorp, Mallika Imwong
BACKGROUND: The 2022 malaria report WHO reported around 4000 P. knowlesi infections in the South-East Asia Region. In the same period, 72 positive cases were reported by MOPH Thailand, suggesting a persistent infection. Little is known about dihydrofolate reductase (pkdhfr) dihydropteroate synthetase (pkdhps), putative antimalarial resistance markers for P. knowlesi. The relevant amplification and sequencing protocol are presently unavailable. In this study, we developed a protocol for amplifying and evaluating pkdhps mutations...
September 6, 2023: Acta Tropica
Anusorn Tinyou, Salisa Chaimon, Orawan Phuphisut, Porntida Kobpornchai, Preeyarat Malaithong, Akkarin Poodeepiyasawat, Issariya Ieamsuwan, Jiraporn Ruangsittichai, Pornpan Pumirat, Paron Dekumyoy, Onrapak Reamtong, Poom Adisakwattana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2023: Acta Tropica
Nélio Gomes, Lana Ferreira-Sa, Nayra Alves, Bruno Dallago, Aline Moraes, Juliana Lott Carvalho, Nadjar Nitz, Luciana Hagström, Shélida Braz, Eleuza Rodrigues Machado, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves, Mariana Hecht
The neglected parasitosis giardiasis is one of the most common intestinal infections worldwide, affecting mainly infants and young children. Giardia duodenalis may disturb the local microbiome, leading to intestinal ecosystem disorders, and altering different processes in the host, such as the immune response. Nevertheless, the alterations promoted by G. duodenalis on the human gut microbiome have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we characterized the gut microbiota of G. duodenalis-infected children and determine the main alterations promoted by the parasite...
September 4, 2023: Acta Tropica
Romina V Piccinali, M Sol Gaspe, Julieta Nattero, Ricardo E Gürtler
Genetic and morphological structure of vector populations are useful to identify panmictic groups, reinfestation sources and minimal units for control interventions. Currently, no studies have integrated genetic and morphometric data in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. We characterized the genetic and phenotypic structure of T. infestans at a small spatial scale (2-8 km), identified potential migrants and compared flight-related traits among genetic groups and between migrant and non-migrant insects in a well-defined area without insecticide spraying in the previous 12 years...
September 2, 2023: Acta Tropica
Makoto Sakamoto, Songkiad Upontain, Pornphutthachat Sota, Jeffrey Mariner, Prasarn Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana
In the endemic area of the liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) infection, effective control of opisthorchiasis using One Health approaches requires transmission interruption in all hosts in the parasite life cycle. Owned domestic cats (Felis catus) are considered an important species among mammalian reservoirs. Similar to humans, household cats become infected by eating raw, contaminated fish and spread the O. viverrini eggs to the environment by defecation. In rural areas, cat owners usually feed their cats with human food or food waste, especially fish dishes...
September 1, 2023: Acta Tropica
T R R Lopes, J V J Silva Júnior, R F Carmo, R Weiblen, E F Flores
The overwhelming majority of SARS-CoV-2 epidemiological studies cover a narrow time period, making general knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic difficult. To assess COVID-19-related host aspects in the overall pandemic, we analyzed COVID-19 cases during the first two years of SARS-CoV-2 circulation in southern Brazil. Herein, 390 patients admitted in 2020-2022 to a Brazilian public referral hospital were allocated into two groups according to the COVID-19 outcome: hospital discharge (n=237) or death (n=153)...
August 31, 2023: Acta Tropica
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