Cryo-electron tomography of viral infection - from applications to biosafety.
Cellular cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) offers 3D snapshots at molecular resolution capturing pivotal steps during viral infection. However, tomogram quality depends on the vitrification level of the sample and its thickness. In addition, mandatory inactivation protocols to assure biosafety when handling highly pathogenic viruses during cryo-ET can compromise sample preservation. Here, we focus on different strategies applied in cryo-ET and discuss their advantages and limitations with reference to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 studies. We highlight the importance of virus-like particle (VLP) and replicon systems to study virus assembly and replication in a cellular context without inactivation protocols. We discuss the application of chemical fixation and different irradiation methods in cryo-ET sample preparation and acquisition workflows.
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