Luca D Bertzbach, Wing-Hang Ip, Konstantin von Stromberg, Thomas Dobner, Roger J Grand
Oncogenic viruses contribute to 15% of global human cancers. To achieve that, virus-encoded oncoproteins deregulate cellular transcription, antagonize common cellular pathways, and thus drive cell transformation. Notably, adenoviruses were the first human viruses proven to induce cancers in diverse animal models. Over the past decades, human adenovirus (HAdV)-mediated oncogenic transformation has been pivotal in deciphering underlying molecular mechanisms. Key adenovirus oncoproteins, encoded in early regions 1 (E1) and 4 (E4), co-ordinate these processes...
June 11, 2024: Current Opinion in Virology
Ali Amini, Paul Klenerman, Nicholas M Provine
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an unconventional T cell population that are highly abundant in humans. They possess a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) that recognises microbial metabolites formed during riboflavin biosynthesis, presented on a nonpolymorphic MHC-like molecule MR1. MAIT cells possess an array of effector functions, including type 1, type 17, and tissue repair activity. Deployment of these functions depends on the stimuli they receive through their TCR and/or cytokine receptors...
June 4, 2024: Current Opinion in Virology
Idia Boncheva, Johanne Poudrier, Emilia L Falcone
Viral infections, including those affecting the respiratory tract, can alter the composition of the intestinal microbiota, which, in turn, can significantly influence both innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in either enhanced pathogen clearance or exacerbation of the infection, possibly leading to inflammatory complications. A deeper understanding of the interplay between the intestinal microbiota and host immune responses in the context of respiratory viral infections (i.e. the gut-lung axis) is necessary to develop new treatments...
May 7, 2024: Current Opinion in Virology
Delphine Bonhomme, Enzo Z Poirier
Virus infection activates specific pattern recognition receptors and immune signal transduction, resulting in pro-inflammatory cytokine production and activation of innate immunity. We describe here the molecular organization of early signaling pathways downstream of viral recognition, including conformational changes, post-translational modifications, formation of oligomers, and generation of small-molecule second messengers. Such molecular organization allows tight regulation of immune signal transduction, characterized by swift but transient responses, nonlinearity, and signal amplification...
May 7, 2024: Current Opinion in Virology
Elena Stylianou, Iman Satti
Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remains the sole licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), despite its variable efficacy in protecting against pulmonary TB. The development of effective TB vaccines faces significant challenges, marked by the absence of validated correlates of protection and predictive animal models. Strategic approaches to enhance TB vaccines and augment BCG efficacy include utilising prime-boost strategies with viral-vectored vaccines and exploring innovative delivery techniques, such as mucosal vaccine administration...
April 3, 2024: Current Opinion in Virology
Cecilia Ruscitti, Coraline Radermecker, Thomas Marichal
Influenza A virus (IAV) infections pose a global health challenge that necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the host immune response to devise effective therapeutic interventions. As monocytes and macrophages play crucial roles in host defence, inflammation, and repair, this review explores the intricate journey of these cells during and after IAV infection. First, we highlight the dynamics and functions of lung-resident macrophage populations post-IAV. Second, we review the current knowledge of recruited monocytes and monocyte-derived cells, emphasising their roles in viral clearance, inflammation, immunomodulation, and tissue repair...
April 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Virology
Erwan Pernet, Jeremie Poschmann, Maziar Divangahi
Respiratory viral infections represent a constant threat for human health and urge for a better understanding of the pulmonary immune response to prevent disease severity. Macrophages are at the center of pulmonary immunity, where they play a pivotal role in orchestrating beneficial and/or pathological outcomes during infection. Eicosanoids, the host bioactive lipid mediators, have re-emerged as important regulators of pulmonary immunity during respiratory viral infections. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge linking eicosanoids' and pulmonary macrophages' homeostatic and antimicrobial functions and discuss eicosanoids as emerging targets for immunotherapy in viral infection...
March 27, 2024: Current Opinion in Virology
Margaret Wy Choi, Carmina A Isidoro, Amy Gillgrass
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 remains a major global health threat. Since the virus is often transmitted through sexual intercourse and women account for the majority of new infections within the most endemic regions, research on mucosal immunity at the female reproductive tract (FRT) is of paramount importance. At the FRT, there are intrinsic barriers to HIV-1 infection, such as epithelial cells and the microbiome, and immune cells of both the innate and adaptive arms are prepared to respond in case the virus overcomes the first line of defense...
March 13, 2024: Current Opinion in Virology
Seungwoo Lee, Karen Km Yeung, Tania H Watts
Influenza virus is an important human pathogen with significant pandemic potential. Tissue-resident memory T cells (Trm) in the lung provide critical protection against influenza, but unlike Trm at other mucosal sites, Trm in the respiratory tract (RT) are subject to rapid attrition in mice, mirroring the decline in protective immunity to influenza virus over time. Conversely, dysfunctional Trm can drive fibrosis in aged mice. The requirement for local antigen to induce and maintain RT Trm must be considered in vaccine strategies designed to induce this protective immune subset...
March 7, 2024: Current Opinion in Virology
Tao Wang, Yanling Wang, Jinjing Zhang, Yushi Yao
Mucosal tissues are frequent targets of both primary and metastatic cancers. This has highlighted the significance of both innate and adaptive anti-cancer immunity at mucosal sites. Trained innate immunity (TII) is an emerging concept defined as enhanced reactivity of innate leukocytes long after a previous stimulation that induces prolonged epigenetic, transcriptional, and metabolic changes. Trained innate leukocytes can respond to heterologous targets due to their lacking of antigen-specificity in most cases...
February 15, 2024: Current Opinion in Virology
Nour Nasser, Pierre Tonnerre, Abdellah Mansouri, Tarik Asselah
An estimated 257 million people are chronic carriers of hepatitis-B virus (HBV) infection, which resulted in around 1 million deaths, mainly due to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Long-term nucleotide analog treatment of HBV infection is associated with favorable prognosis, no disease progression, and a reduction of HCC risk, but lifelong treatments are required. A better understanding of HBV replication cycle and the host immune response will likely improve the identification of new targets for drug development...
December 2023: Current Opinion in Virology
Philip Lawrence, Michelle Heung, Julia Nave, Christoph Henkel, Beatriz Escudero-Pérez
Over the last decade, the emergence of several zoonotic viruses has demonstrated that previously unknown or neglected pathogens have the potential to cause epidemics and therefore to pose a threat to global public health. Even more concerning are the estimated 1.7 million still-undiscovered viruses present in the natural environment or 'global virome', with many of these as-yet uncharacterized viruses predicted to be pathogenic for humans. Thus, in order to mitigate disease emergence and prevent future pandemics, it is crucial to identify the global extent of viral threats to which humans may become exposed...
November 22, 2023: Current Opinion in Virology
Taylor Saturday, Neeltje van Doremalen
The continued pressure of COVID-19 on public health worldwide underlines the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms of disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Though many animal models are readily available for use, the nonhuman primate (NHP) models are considered the gold standard in recapitulating disease progression in humans. In this review, we highlight the relevant research since the beginning of the pandemic to critically evaluate the importance of this model. We characterize the disease's clinical manifestations, aspects of viral replication and shedding, induction of the host's immune response, and pathological findings that broaden our understanding of the importance of NHPs in research to strengthen our public health approach to the pandemic...
October 10, 2023: Current Opinion in Virology
Jelle Matthijnssens, Evelien Adriaenssens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2023: Current Opinion in Virology
Leira Fernández-Bastit, Júlia Vergara-Alert, Joaquim Segalés
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a zoonotic virus able to infect humans and multiple nonhuman animal species. Most natural infections in companion, captive zoo, livestock, and wildlife species have been related to a reverse transmission, raising concern about potential generation of animal reservoirs due to human-animal interactions. To date, American mink and white-tailed deer are the only species that led to extensive intraspecies transmission of SARS-CoV-2 after reverse zoonosis, leading to an efficient spread of the virus and subsequent animal-to-human transmission...
October 2, 2023: Current Opinion in Virology
Brad Gilbertson, Melanie Duncan, Kanta Subbarao
As a group, influenza-A viruses (IAV) infect a wide range of animal hosts, however, they are constrained to infecting selected host species by species-specific interactions between the host and virus, that are required for efficient replication of the viral RNA genome. When IAV cross the species barrier, they acquire mutations in the viral genome to enable interactions with the new host factors, or to compensate for their loss. The viral polymerase genes polymerase basic 1, polymerase basic 2, and polymerase-acidic are important sites of host adaptation...
October 2023: Current Opinion in Virology
Anna Z Mykytyn, Ron Am Fouchier, Bart L Haagmans
SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, emerged in China in December 2019. Vaccines developed were very effective initially, however, the virus has shown remarkable evolution with multiple variants spreading globally over the last three years. Nowadays, newly emerging Omicron lineages are gaining substitutions at a fast rate, resulting in escape from neutralization by antibodies that target the Spike protein. Tools to map the impact of substitutions on the further antigenic evolution of SARS-CoV-2, such as antigenic cartography, may be helpful to update SARS-CoV-2 vaccines...
October 2023: Current Opinion in Virology
Belén Carriquí-Madroñal, Lisa Lasswitz, Thomas von Hahn, Gisa Gerold
Hepatitis-C virus (HCV) chronically infects 58 million individuals worldwide with variable disease outcome. While a subfraction of individuals exposed to the virus clear the infection, the majority develop chronic infection if untreated. Another subfraction of chronically ill proceeds to severe liver disease. The underlying causes of this interindividual variability include genetic polymorphisms in interferon genes. Here, we review available data on the influence of genetic or pharmacological perturbation of HCV host dependency factors on the clinically observed interindividual differences in disease outcome...
September 5, 2023: Current Opinion in Virology
Katinka Döhner, Manutea C Serrero, Beate Sodeik
Microtubule transport and nuclear import are functionally connected, and the nuclear pore complex (NPC) can interact with microtubule motors. For several alphaherpesvirus proteins, nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and their interactions with specific importin-α proteins have been characterized. Here, we review recent insights on the roles of microtubule motors, capsid-associated NLSs, and importin-α proteins for capsid transport, capsid docking to NPCs, and genome release into the nucleoplasm, as well as the role of importins for nuclear viral transcription, replication, capsid assembly, genome packaging, and nuclear capsid egress...
September 4, 2023: Current Opinion in Virology
Ethel Cesarman, Jennifer Totonchy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2023: Current Opinion in Virology
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