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Current Opinion in Virology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753961/status-of-antiviral-therapeutics-against-rabies-virus-and-related-emerging-lyssaviruses
#1
REVIEW
Venice Du Pont, Richard K Plemper, Matthias J Schnell
Rabies virus (RABV) constitutes a major social and economic burden associated with 60 000 deaths annually worldwide. Although pre-exposure and post-exposure treatment options are available, they are efficacious only when initiated before the onset of clinical symptoms. Aggravating the problem, the current RABV vaccine does not cross-protect against the emerging zoonotic phylogroup II lyssaviruses. A requirement for an uninterrupted cold chain and high cost of the immunoglobulin component of rabies prophylaxis generate an unmet need for the development of RABV-specific antivirals...
February 9, 2019: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30743191/emergence-and-re-emergence-of-mosquito-borne-arboviruses
#2
REVIEW
Yan-Jang S Huang, Stephen Higgs, Dana L Vanlandingham
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are ecologically distinct from many other pathogens because of the involvement of arthropod vectors and animal reservoirs. Several mosquito-borne arboviruses have emerged in various geographic regions during the past few decades. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the emergence of two mosquito-borne arboviruses, chikungunya and Zika, has taken place globally. Millions of infections have not only changed the epidemiology of previously obscure viruses, but also put the world's public health capability to the test...
February 8, 2019: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711892/emerging-viruses-in-aquaculture
#3
REVIEW
Frederick Sb Kibenge
Aquaculture remains the world's fastest-growing sector producing food of animal origin. Unlike in terrestrial animal agriculture, in aquaculture both farmed and wild aquatic animals in the same water column experience the same virus challenges. Additionally, the burgeoning international aquaculture expansion and expanding global trade in live aquatic animals and their products have been accompanied by long distance geographical redistribution of aquatic animal species and their viruses. The outcome is a continuous emergence of viral diseases in aquaculture, which may be driven by virus factors, animal host factors, environmental factors, and/or anthropogenic factors...
January 31, 2019: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703578/parallel-molecular-evolution-and-adaptation-in-viruses
#4
REVIEW
Bernardo Gutierrez, Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Oliver G Pybus
Parallel molecular evolution is the independent evolution of the same genotype or phenotype from distinct ancestors. The simple genomes and rapid evolution of many viruses mean they are useful model systems for studying parallel evolution by natural selection. Parallel adaptation occurs in the context of several viral behaviours, including cross-species transmission, drug resistance, and host immune escape, and its existence suggests that at least some aspects of virus evolution and emergence are repeatable and predictable...
January 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30665189/viruses-in-bats-and-potential-spillover-to-animals-and-humans
#5
REVIEW
Lin-Fa Wang, Danielle E Anderson
In the last two decades, several high impact zoonotic disease outbreaks have been linked to bat-borne viruses. These include SARS coronavirus, Hendra virus and Nipah virus. In addition, it has been suspected that ebolaviruses and MERS coronavirus are also linked to bats. It is being increasingly accepted that bats are potential reservoirs of a large number of known and unknown viruses, many of which could spillover into animal and human populations. However, our knowledge into basic bat biology and immunology is very limited and we have little understanding of major factors contributing to the risk of bat virus spillover events...
January 18, 2019: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660091/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-and-expansion-from-endemic-regions
#6
REVIEW
Jessica R Spengler, Éric Bergeron, Christina F Spiropoulou
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a virus-mediated hemorrhagic disease that occurs over a wide geographic region. In recent years, a variety of active and passive surveillance networks have improved our knowledge of areas with existing circulation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), the etiologic agent of CCHF. These investigations aid in better defining the distribution of the virus. Expansion of a virus into new areas can occur through a variety of means, including introduction of infected humans, vectors, or animals...
January 16, 2019: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654272/emergence-and-re-emergence-of-respiratory-adenoviruses-in-the-united-states
#7
REVIEW
Adriana E Kajon, Daryl M Lamson, Kirsten St George
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are prevalent causes of acute respiratory disease (ARD) in military and civilian communities. Over the last 20 years, collaborative efforts between US public health, military and academic laboratories have gathered comprehensive data documenting the emergence and re-emergence of specific HAdV types in association with outbreaks and unrelated cases of ARD, which have attracted national attention. New or reemerging HAdVs have included genomic variants of HAdV-B14, HAdV-B7, and HAdV-E4...
January 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654271/bluetongue-and-epizootic-hemorrhagic-disease-viruses-recent-developments-with-these-globally-re-emerging-arboviral-infections-of-ruminants
#8
REVIEW
Nigel James Maclachlan, Stephan Zientara, William C Wilson, Juergen A Richt, Giovanni Savini
Bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) are globally re-emerging diseases of domestic and wild ruminants, respectively caused by BT virus (BTV) and EHD virus. Both viruses are transmitted by hematophagous midges; however, newly recognized BTV serotypes may be transmitted horizontally without requirement for any biological vector. The global range of these viruses and/or their associated diseases have changed remarkably in recent years, most notably with the invasion of Europe by multiple serotypes of BTV since 1998...
January 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654270/evolution-of-plant-virus-interactions-host-range-and-virus-emergence
#9
REVIEW
Michael J McLeish, Aurora Fraile, Fernando García-Arenal
Changes in host range are central to virus emergence. Host range, together with its evolution, is determined by virus intrinsic factors, such as genetic traits determining its fitness in different hosts. Experimental analyses have shown the relevance in host range evolution of across-host fitness trade-offs. Host range is also determined by ecological factors extrinsic to the virus such as the distribution, abundance, and interaction of species, and understanding their role in host range evolution is a current challenge...
January 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654269/emerging-and-re-emerging-coronaviruses-in-pigs
#10
REVIEW
Qiuhong Wang, Anastasia N Vlasova, Scott P Kenney, Linda J Saif
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and swine acute diarrhea syndrome-coronavirus (SADS-CoV) are emerging/reemerging coronaviruses (CoVs). They cause acute gastroenteritis in neonatal piglets. Sequence analyses suggest that PEDV and SADS-CoV may have originated from bat CoVs and PDCoV from a sparrow CoV, reaffirming the interspecies transmission of CoVs. The clinical signs and pathogenesis of the three viruses are similar. Necrosis of infected intestinal epithelial cells occurs, causing villous atrophy that results in malabsorptive diarrhea...
January 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30576956/genome-wide-approaches-to-unravelling-host-virus-interactions-in-dengue-and-zika-infections
#11
REVIEW
Aaron F Carlin, Sujan Shresta
Genomics approaches are increasingly utilized to probe host-viral interactions and identify mechanisms of viral pathogenesis and host-subversion. Here we review recent studies that utilize Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 screens, transcriptomics and epigenomics to gain insight into Dengue and Zika virus infections in humans. We discuss the benefits and limitations of recently utilized techniques that separate virally infected cells from neighboring uninfected cells to identify the mechanisms by which these viruses regulate host responses...
December 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30500682/plant-rhabdoviruses-their-origins-and-vector-interactions
#12
REVIEW
Anna E Whitfield, Ordom Brian Huot, Kathleen M Martin, Hideki Kondo, Ralf G Dietzgen
Classical plant rhabdoviruses infect monocot and dicot plants, have unsegmented negative-sense RNA genomes and have been taxonomically classified in the genera Cytorhabdovirus and Nucleorhabdovirus. These viruses replicate in their hemipteran vectors and are transmitted in a circulative-propagative mode and virus infection persists for the life of the insect. Based on the discovery of numerous novel rhabdoviruses in arthropods during metagenomic studies and extensive phylogenetic analyses of the family Rhabdoviridae, it is hypothesized that plant-infecting rhabdoviruses are derived from insect viruses...
November 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30500681/molecular-interactions-between-tospoviruses-and-thrips-vectors
#13
REVIEW
Dorith Rotenberg, Anna E Whitfield
Thrips-transmitted tospoviruses are an emerging and re-emerging threat to crop production worldwide. Tospoviruses are transstadially transmitted from larval to pupal stages of development, with adults serving as the primary inoculators of plants. A unique feature of the transmission cycle is that adults-while they can acquire virus from plants directly-are competent as vectors only if they acquire virus as larvae. Thrips vectors also serve as hosts for the virus, supporting its replication in midgut tissues and salivary glands...
November 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30497052/arenavirus-genomics-novel-insights-into-viral-diversity-origin-and-evolution
#14
REVIEW
Chiara Pontremoli, Diego Forni, Manuela Sironi
Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized our knowledge of virus diversity and evolution. In the case of arenaviruses, which are the focus of this review, metagenomic/metatranscriptomic approaches identified reptile-infecting and fish-infecting viruses, also showing that bi-segmented genomes are not a universal feature of the Arenaviridae family. Novel mammarenaviruses were described, allowing inference of their geographic origin and evolutionary dynamics. Extensive sequencing of Lassa virus (LASV) genomes revealed the zoonotic nature of most human infections and a Nigerian origin of LASV, which subsequently spread westward...
November 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30497051/hepatitis-e-virus-reasons-for-emergence-in-humans
#15
REVIEW
Harini Sooryanarain, Xiang-Jin Meng
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infects both humans and other animal species. Recently, we have seen a steady increase in autochthonous cases of human HEV infection in certain areas especially in Europe, and large outbreaks in several African countries among the displaced population. This mini-review critically analyzes potential host, environmental, and viral factors that may be associated with the emergence of hepatitis E in humans. The existence of numerous HEV reservoir animals such as pig, deer and rabbit results in human exposure to infected animals via direct contact or through animal meat consumption...
November 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30497050/broadly-protective-influenza-vaccines-design-and-production-platforms
#16
REVIEW
Husni Elbahesh, Giulietta Saletti, Thomas Gerlach, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Effective vaccines are the cornerstone of our defenses against acute influenza virus infections that result in ∼500 000 annual deaths worldwide. For decades, an on-going concerted effort has been to develop a universal influenza vaccine to combat the looming threat of potentially pandemic emerging and re-emerging influenza viruses. To address the need for rapid efficacious vaccines that could mitigate the impact of seasonal and future pandemics, multiple platforms are under development and/or investigation...
November 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30527269/editorial-overview-multicomponent-viral-systems
#17
EDITORIAL
Yannis Michalakis, Stéphane Blanc
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30527268/editorial-overview-plant-virus-vector-interactions
#18
EDITORIAL
Anna E Whitfield, Ralf G Dietzgen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30471620/population-bottlenecks-in-multicomponent-viruses-first-forays-into-the-uncharted-territory-of-genome-formula-drift
#19
REVIEW
Serafín Gutiérrez, Mark P Zwart
Multicomponent viral systems face specific challenges when enduring population bottlenecks. These systems can lose coding information due to the lack of co-encapsidation of all the genetic information, at least in a proportion of the capsids in a population. Moreover, bottlenecks can also impact one of the main potential advantages of multicomponent systems: the regulation of gene expression through changes in gene copy frequencies at the population level. How these systems cope with population bottlenecks is far from being clear...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30428425/rnai-mediated-antiviral-immunity-in-insects-and-their-possible-application
#20
REVIEW
Mayke Leggewie, Esther Schnettler
Antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) in insects is known for some time. Previously, data from the model organism Drosophila was lightly transferred to other insects. However, since more research is performed on other insects, both similarities and important differences among the RNAi pathways of insects are revealed. The piRNA pathway, for example, is suggested to have antiviral functions in mosquitoes, which is unknown for other insects. Moreover, production of viral cDNA from RNA viruses during infection and their possible incorporation into the genome hint towards potential inheritable immunity in mosquitoes...
November 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
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