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Leukocytospermia does not negatively impact outcomes in in vitro fertilization cycles with intracytoplasmic sperm injection and preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy: findings from 5435 cycles.

PURPOSE: To investigate whether leukocytospermia (defined as the presence of ≥ 1 × 106 white blood cells/mL) affects clinical and embryologic outcomes in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A).

METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study including 5425 cycles between January 2012 to December 2021 at a single large university-affiliated fertility clinic. The primary outcome was live birth rate (LBR).

RESULTS: The prevalence of leukocytospermia was 33.9% (n = 1843). Baseline characteristics including female age, BMI, AMH, Day 3 FSH, and male partner's age were similar in cycles with and without leukocytospermia. The LBR after the first euploid embryo transfer was similar in those with and without leukocytospermia (62.3% vs. 63% p = 0.625). Secondary outcomes including clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), sustained implantation rate (SIR), fertilization (2PN) rate, blastulation rate, and aneuploidy rate were also evaluated. The CPR (73.3% vs 74.9%, p = 0.213) and SIR (64.6% vs. 66%, p = 0.305) were similar in both groups. The 2PN rate was also similar in both groups (85.7% vs. 85.8%, p = 0.791), as was the blastulation rate per 2PN (56.7% vs. 57.5%, p = 0.116). The aneuploidy rate was not significantly different between groups (25.7% vs 24.4%, p = 0.053). A generalized estimation equation with logistic regression demonstrated that the presence leukocytospermia did not influence the LBR (adjusted OR 0.878; 95% CI, 0.680-1.138).

CONCLUSION: Leukocytospermia diagnosed just prior to an IVF cycle with PGT-A does not negatively impact clinical or embryologic outcomes.

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