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Enhancing recurrence risk prediction for bladder cancer using multi-sequence MRI radiomics.

Insights Into Imaging 2024 March 26
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop a radiomics-clinical nomogram using multi-sequence MRI to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) in bladder cancer (BCa) patients and assess its superiority over clinical models.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 229 BCa patients with preoperative multi-sequence MRI was divided into a training set (n = 160) and a validation set (n = 69). Radiomics features were extracted from T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient, and dynamic contrast-enhanced images. Effective features were identified using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. Clinical risk factors were determined via univariate and multivariate Cox analysis, leading to the creation of a radiomics-clinical nomogram. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank tests assessed the relationship between radiomics features and RFS. We calculated the net reclassification improvement (NRI) to evaluate the added value of the radiomics signature and used decision curve analysis (DCA) to assess the nomogram's clinical validity.

RESULTS: Radiomics features significantly correlated with RFS (log-rank p < 0.001) and were independent of clinical factors (p < 0.001). The combined model, incorporating radiomics features and clinical data, demonstrated the best prognostic value, with C-index values of 0.853 in the training set and 0.832 in the validation set. Compared to the clinical model, the radiomics-clinical nomogram exhibited superior calibration and classification (NRI: 0.6768, 95% CI: 0.5549-0.7987, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: The radiomics-clinical nomogram, based on multi-sequence MRI, effectively assesses the BCa recurrence risk. It outperforms both the radiomics model and the clinical model in predicting BCa recurrence risk.

CRITICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT: The radiomics-clinical nomogram, utilizing multi-sequence MRI, holds promise for predicting bladder cancer recurrence, enhancing individualized clinical treatment, and performing tumor surveillance.

KEY POINTS: • Radiomics plays a vital role in predicting bladder cancer recurrence. • Precise prediction of tumor recurrence risk is crucial for clinical management. • MRI-based radiomics models excel in predicting bladder cancer recurrence.

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