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Mapping Lifestyle Interventions for Gestational Diabetes Prevention: A Scoping Review.

Current Diabetes Reports 2024 Februrary 18
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review to map intervention, sample, and physiologic measurement characteristics of lifestyle interventions for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevention.

RECENT FINDINGS: A total of 19 studies met selection criteria from 405 articles screened (PubMed, Web of Science). No studies were US-based (47% multi-site), and all were delivered in clinical settings. The most targeted nutrition components were low carbohydrate intake (sugar rich foods/added sugars, low glycemic index), low fat intake (mainly low-fat meat, dairy, and saturated fat), and increased fruits and vegetables. Many studies promoted 150 min/week moderate-intensity physical activity. Only two studies provided supervised physical activity sessions. Dietitians and nurses were the most common implementers. Samples were characterized as adults with obesity (mean age 31 yr, BMI 31 kg/m2 ). Asian populations were predominantly studied. Four studies used theoretical frameworks (75% of which used Social Cognitive Theory). GDM diagnostic criteria set forth by the American Diabetes Association were the most widely used. Insulin sensitivity was commonly assessed via fasting indices. There was a lack of multi-disciplinary, multi-level, and theory-based lifestyle interventions for reducing GDM risk. Addressing these gaps and prioritizing high-risk populations in the US with measurement of traditional and novel biomarkers will advance the field.

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