Isabella Marranzini Rodriquez, Katie L O'Sullivan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the rise in prevalence of youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM), it is imperative to understand the clinical burden of the disease and the socioeconomic burden this disease imposes. We review the most recent data on youth-onset T2DM, including its pathophysiology, complications, and treatment. We also review existing data to determine the socioeconomic burden of youth-onset T2DM. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of youth-onset T2DM is rising, and significantly accelerated following the COVID-19 pandemic...
March 24, 2023: Current Diabetes Reports
Susana R Patton, Christopher C Cushing, Amy Hughes Lansing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2023: Current Diabetes Reports
Sabrena F Noria, Rita D Shelby, Katelyn D Atkins, Ninh T Nguyen, Kishore M Gadde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment of severe obesity, a proportion of patients experience clinically significant weight regain (WR) with further out from surgery. The purpose of this review is to summarize the prevalence, predictors, and causes of weight regain. RECENT FINDINGS: Estimating the prevalence of WR is limited by a lack of consensus on its definition. While anatomic failures such as dilated gastric fundus after sleeve gastrectomy and gastro-gastric fistula after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass can lead to WR, the most common causes appear to be dysregulated/maladaptive eating behaviors, lifestyle factors, and physiological compensatory mechanisms...
February 8, 2023: Current Diabetes Reports
Jenine Y Stone, Lindsay S Mayberry, Kate Clouse, Shelagh Mulvaney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes is a chronic condition that requires consistent self-management for optimal health outcomes. People with diabetes are prone to burnout, cognitive burden, and sub-optimal performance of self-management tasks. Interventions that focus on habit formation have the potential to increase engagement by facilitating automaticity of self-management task performance. The purpose of this review is to (1) clarify the conceptualizations of habit formation and behavioral automaticity in the context of health behavior interventions, (2) review the evidence of habit in relation to behaviors relevant to diabetes self-management, and (3) discuss opportunities for incorporating habit formation and automaticity into diabetes self-management interventions...
February 7, 2023: Current Diabetes Reports
Sarah Corathers, Desireé N Williford, Jessica Kichler, Laura Smith, Emma Ospelt, Saketh Rompicherla, Alissa Roberts, Priya Prahalad, Marina Basina, Cynthia Muñoz, Osagie Ebekozien
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2023: Current Diabetes Reports
Rachna Sannegowda, Karina Villalba, Ryan Suk, Shilpa Gurnurkar, Rachel M Wasserman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Substance use is a major public health problem in adolescents and young adults (AYA) and is particularly dangerous for AYA with type 1 diabetes (T1D) due to additional health consequences related to T1D. Rates of substance use among AYA with T1D are difficult to ascertain. Currently, we aim to provide a summary of published rates of substance use, over the last 10 years, among AYA with T1D in the USA. RECENT FINDINGS: This review included a database search, abstract screening, and synthesizing of articles published in the last 10 years that reported rates of substance use among AYA with T1D...
January 14, 2023: Current Diabetes Reports
Sarah Corathers, Desiree Wilford, Jessica Kichler, Laura Smith, Emma Ospelt, Saketh Rompicherla, Alissa Roberts, Priya Prahalad, Marina Basina, Cynthia Muñoz, Osagie Ebekozien
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although advances in diabetes technology and pharmacology have significantly and positively impacted diabetes management and health outcomes for some, diabetes care remains burdensome and can be challenging to balance with other life priorities. The purpose of this article is to review the rationale for assessment of psychosocial domains in diabetes care settings and strategies for the implementation of psychosocial screening into routine practice. Survey data from the Type 1 Diabetes Exchange Quality Improvement Network is highlighted...
December 20, 2022: Current Diabetes Reports
Trevor Bell, Elizabeth Hazel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a notable lack of consistency in the measurement of psychosocial factors affecting youth with type 1 diabetes, resulting in a need for increased measurement standardization and establishment of measures tailored to capture unique experiences faced by youth. This review sought to assess 10 years of extant literature (2011 to 2020) to identify which established measurement tools are commonly used and to evaluate new measurement tools that were introduced during this period...
December 2022: Current Diabetes Reports
Naama Fisch Shvalb
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the unique pathogenesis of SHORT syndrome, a rare genetic form of insulin resistance syndrome, and recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanisms. SHORT syndrome results from dysfunction of PI3K, but the mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations are not entirely understood. Elucidating these mechanisms may contribute to the understanding of the roles of insulin signaling and PI3K signaling in humans. There are paucity of data on treatment and outcomes...
December 2022: Current Diabetes Reports
Akilavalli Narasimhan, Rafael R Flores, Christina D Camell, David A Bernlohr, Paul D Robbins, Laura J Niedernhofer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has increased worldwide recently and represents a major global health challenge. This review focuses on the obesity-associated cellular senescence in various organs and the role of these senescent cells (SnCs) in driving complications associated with obesity. Also, the ability to target SnCs pharmacologically with drugs termed senotherapeutics as a therapy for these complications is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies have shown a positive correlation between obesity and SnC burden in organs such as adipose tissue, liver, and pancreatic-β-cells...
November 2022: Current Diabetes Reports
Jason A Zehden, Xavier M Mortensen, Ashvini Reddy, Alice Yang Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are used routinely in the management of neovascular conditions including proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. While the efficacy of anti-VEGF agents has been well-validated, their ocular and systemic adverse events should always be considered and discussed with patients. The aim of this review is to discuss the most recent literature reports regarding the various ocular and systemic adverse events associated with intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment in diabetic retinopathy...
October 2022: Current Diabetes Reports
Benjamin Aceves, Rose Gunn, Maura Pisciotta, Na'amah Razon, Erika Cottrell, Danielle Hessler, Rachel Gold, Laura M Gottlieb
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An expanding body of research documents associations between socioeconomic circumstances and health outcomes, which has led health care institutions to invest in new activities to identify and address patients' social circumstances in the context of care delivery. Despite growing national investment in these "social care" initiatives, the extent to which social care activities are routinely incorporated into care for patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2D), specifically, is unknown...
October 2022: Current Diabetes Reports
Xuehong Dong, Lei Su, Mary-Elizabeth Patti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Canonical growth hormone (GH)-dependent signaling is essential for growth and counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia, but also may contribute to glucose homeostasis (even in the absence of hypoglycemia) via its impact on metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, body composition, and cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this review is to summarize recent data implicating GH action in metabolic control, including both IGF-1-dependent and -independent pathways, and its potential role as target for T2D therapy...
October 2022: Current Diabetes Reports
Nivedita Patni, Abhimanyu Garg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic or acquired lipodystrophies are characterized by selective loss of body fat along with predisposition towards metabolic complications of insulin resistance, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and acanthosis nigricans. In this review, we discuss the various subtypes and when to suspect and how to diagnose lipodystrophy. RECENT FINDINGS: The four major subtypes are autosomal recessive, congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL); acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL), mostly an autoimmune disorder; autosomal dominant or recessive familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD); and acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL), an autoimmune disorder...
September 2022: Current Diabetes Reports
Arthur H Owora, David B Allison, Xuan Zhang, Nana Gletsu-Miller, Kishore M Gadde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) among individuals with overweight or obesity is well-established; however, questions remain about the temporal dynamics of weight change (gain or loss) on the natural course of T2D in this at-risk population. Existing epidemiologic evidence is limited to studies that discretely sample and assess excess weight and T2D risk at different ages with limited follow-up, yet changes in weight may have time-varying and possibly non-linear effects on T2D risk...
September 2022: Current Diabetes Reports
Hailey Inverso, Hailey R Moore, Francesca Lupini, Christine H Wang, Randi Streisand, Lauren B Shomaker, Eleanor R Mackey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) focus on promoting nonjudgmental, purposeful awareness of the present experience, and they include specific components such as body scan, meditation, and breathing techniques for healthier coping with stress and reduced negative affect. In adult populations with chronic illness (e.g., type 1 diabetes [T1D], type 2 diabetes [T2D], overweight), MBIs have been shown to improve psychosocial outcomes with some improvements in health outcomes as well...
August 19, 2022: Current Diabetes Reports
Michelle Jaromy, Joshua D Miller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, the authors discuss potential clinical applications for continuous ketone monitoring (CKM) in a broad continuum of clinical settings from pre-hospital care and the emergency department to acute inpatient management and post-discharge follow-up. RECENT FINDINGS: Though in its early stages, the concept of a novel continuous ketone sensing technology exerts great potential for use in the detection and hospital management of DKA, namely to overcome diagnostic barriers associated with ketoacidosis in patients with diabetes and obtain real-time BOHB levels, which may be useful in understanding both patients' response to treatment and DKA trajectory...
August 19, 2022: Current Diabetes Reports
Johanna E Gerwer, Grace Bacani, Patricia S Juang, Kristen Kulasa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses ways in which the electronic health record (EHR) can offer clinical decision support (CDS) tools for management of inpatient diabetes and hyperglycemia. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of electronic order sets can help providers order comprehensive basal bolus insulin regimens that are consistent with current guidelines. Order sets have been shown to reduce insulin errors and hypoglycemia rates. They can also help set glycemic targets, give hemoglobin A1C reminders, guide weight-based dosing, and match insulin regimen to nutritional profile...
August 2, 2022: Current Diabetes Reports
Andrew Zale, Nestoras Mathioudakis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucose management in the hospital is difficult due to non-static factors such as antihyperglycemic and steroid doses, renal function, infection, surgical status, and diet. Given these complex and dynamic factors, machine learning approaches can be leveraged for prediction of glucose trends in the hospital to mitigate and prevent suboptimal hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic outcomes. Our aim was to review the clinical evidence for the role of machine learning-based models in predicting hospitalized patients' glucose trajectory...
August 2022: Current Diabetes Reports
Trisha A Jenkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of vascular cognitive impairment or, in the more extreme, vascular dementia. Animal models are used to investigate the relationship between pathology and behaviour. This review summarizes the latest understanding of the role of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in vascular cognitive impairment, the influence of inflammation in this association while also commenting on some of the latest interventions proposed...
August 2022: Current Diabetes Reports
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