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Current Diabetes Reports

Kristin K Clemens, Niamh O'Regan, Jinnie J Rhee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Older adults often live with chronic disease including diabetes and its complications. In this review, we examine the complexity and heterogeneity of older adults with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, explore the nuances in their diabetes-related monitoring, and discuss their best diabetes management. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there remains an overall lack of studies in older adults with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, recent reports have highlighted their vulnerabilities...
February 15, 2019: Current Diabetes Reports
Jaclynn M Hawkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the state of type 2 diabetes (T2D) self-management research on non-Hispanic Black men with a focus on their knowledge of diabetes, factors that impact T2D self-management and intervention research that specifically targets non-Hispanic Black men with T2D. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies on T2D knowledge and barriers and facilitators to T2D self-management in non-Hispanic Black men are limited to small qualitative focus group and in-depth interviews...
February 11, 2019: Current Diabetes Reports
Lixia Xu, Rama Natarajan, Zhen Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenetic variations have been shown to reveal vulnerability to diabetes and its complications. Although it has become clear that metabolic derangements, especially hyperglycemia, can impose a long-term metabolic memory that predisposes to diabetic complications, the underlying mechanisms remain to be understood. It has been suggested that epigenetics (e.g., histone modification, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs) help link metabolic disruption to aberrancies related to diabetic kidney disease (DKD)...
February 7, 2019: Current Diabetes Reports
Noor Al Busaidi, Prakash Shanmugam, Deepa Manoharan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes is a primary public health concern and a challenge for health decision makers in this century. Though the number of people with diabetes is increasing all over the globe, the very high prevalence of diabetes in many Middle East countries has made this region one of the global diabetes hot spots. Due to rapid socioeconomic growth, lifestyle changes and increasing obesity prevalence, the number of people with diabetes is expected to double by 2045 in this region...
February 4, 2019: Current Diabetes Reports
Carla K Miller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adaptive behavioral interventions tailor the type or dose of intervention strategies to individuals over time to improve saliency and intervention efficacy. This review describes the unique characteristics of adaptive intervention designs, summarizes recent diabetes-related prevention studies, which used adaptive designs, and offers recommendations for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Eight adaptive intervention studies were reported since 2013 to reduce sedentary behavior or improve weight management in overweight or obese adults...
January 25, 2019: Current Diabetes Reports
Francine K Welty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarize studies on omega-3 fatty acids in prevention of albuminuria in subjects with diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Several small, short-term trials suggested benefit on albuminuria in subjects with diabetes; however, results were not definitive. Welty et al. showed that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 1 year slowed progression of early-stage albuminuria in subjects with diabetes with clinical coronary artery disease on an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker, the majority of whom had an albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) < 30 μg/mg...
January 25, 2019: Current Diabetes Reports
Clarisse Mapa-Tassou, Jean-Claude Katte, Camille Mba Maadjhou, Jean Claude Mbanya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to address knowledge gaps around the economic burden of diabetes in Africa. Africa is home to numerous endemic infections and also prevalent non-communicable diseases including diabetes. It is projected that the greatest increases in diabetes prevalence will occur in Africa. The importance of this review therefore lies in providing adequate knowledge on the economic challenges that diabetes poses to the continent and describe the way forward in tackling this epidemic...
January 24, 2019: Current Diabetes Reports
Yuliya Lytvyn, Lucas C Godoy, Rosalie A Scholtes, Daniël H van Raalte, David Z Cherney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), cardiovascular disease, and heart failure, in part through activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Although recent cardiovascular outcome trials have identified newer therapeutic agents such as sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-receptor agonists that reduce the risk of these complications, patients still exhibit residual cardiorenal morbidity and mortality...
January 23, 2019: Current Diabetes Reports
Jacob M Redel, Lawrence M Dolan, Mark DiFrancesco, Jennifer Vannest, Amy S Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the literature evaluating the potential adverse effects of youth-onset type 2 diabetes on the developing brain. A summary of recently published articles and the current state of knowledge are covered succinctly in this manuscript. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature suggests both cognitive and brain structural differences are found in youth with type 2 diabetes. Studies have shown poorer scores in a number of neurocognitive domains, particularly in areas of executive functioning and memory...
January 21, 2019: Current Diabetes Reports
Tatsuhiko Urakami, Remi Kuwabara, Kei Yoshida
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The economic burden of diabetes in Japan is already serious and will become greater in the future. We review the economic impact of diabetes in Japan to examine viable options for mitigating its effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Medical costs for diabetes have been increasing by US $1 million annually, reaching US $11 million in 2009, of which US $7 million was accounted for by people aged 65 years or older. The quality of treatment of diabetes in Japan is higher than in other regions in the world...
January 16, 2019: Current Diabetes Reports
Bernardo Lessa Horta, Natalia Peixoto de Lima
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breastfeeding has short- and long-term benefits for child health. In this systematic review, we updated a review on the association between breastfeeding and type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: A meta-analysis published in 2015 reported that breastfeeding protects against type 2 diabetes (pooled odds ratio, 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.48; 0.86)). In the present update, we identified three recently published studies. An internet-based study reported that at a mean age of 25...
January 14, 2019: Current Diabetes Reports
Ashkan Zand, Karim Ibrahim, Archana R Sadhu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the rapidly evolving and complex field of inpatient diabetes, complex care teams of physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurses, and pharmacists are challenged to remain well informed of the latest clinical treatments and health care trends. Traditional continuing medical education (CME) and continuing education unit (CEU) strategies that require travel and/or time away from work pose a major barrier. With advancements in technology, there are media and other electronic strategies for delivering CME/ CEU that may overcome these current challenges...
November 21, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Mohammed K Ali, Frank Wharam, O Kenrik Duru, Julie Schmittdiel, Ronald T Ackermann, Jeanine Albu, Dennis Ross-Degnan, Christine M Hunter, Carol Mangione, Edward W Gregg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To advance our understanding of the impacts of policies and programs aimed at improving detection, engagement, prevention, and clinical diabetes management in the USA, we synthesized findings from a network of studies that used natural experiments to evaluate diabetes health policies and programs. FINDINGS: Studies from the Natural EXperiments for Translation in Diabetes (NEXT-D) network used rigorous longitudinal quasi-experimental study designs (e...
November 20, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Kristin L Young, Mariaelisa Graff, Lindsay Fernandez-Rhodes, Kari E North
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise, fueling a global public health crisis characterized by dramatic increases in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and many cancers. In the USA, several minority populations, who bear much of the obesity burden (47% in African Americans and Hispanic/Latinos, compared to 38% in European descent groups), are particularly at risk of downstream chronic disease. Compounding these disparities, most genome-wide association studies (GWAS)-including those of obesity-have largely been conducted in populations of European or East Asian ancestry...
November 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Robert J Chilton, Kelly M Gallegos, José Silva-Cardoso, Rene Oliveros, Son Pham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the treatment of type 2 diabetes from a cardiologist's view. RECENT FINDINGS: A new era in the treatment of type 2 diabetes began for the cardiologist in 2015 with the publication of the EMPA-REG outcome trial finding a significant reduction in CV death with empagliflozin (oral sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 [SGLT2] inhibitor) in patients with type 2 diabetes at increased cardiovascular risk. Shortly thereafter, the injectable glucagon-like peptide agonists (GLP-1) liraglutide and semaglutide found a significant reduction in composite major cardiovascular events (CV death, non-fatal MI, or stroke)...
November 8, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Baris Akinci, Rasimcan Meral, Elif Arioglu Oral
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article focuses on recent progress in understanding the genetics of lipodystrophy syndromes, the pathophysiology of severe metabolic abnormalities caused by these syndromes, and causes of severe morbidity and a possible signal of increased mortality associated with lipodystrophy. An updated classification scheme is also presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Lipodystrophy encompasses a group of heterogeneous rare diseases characterized by generalized or partial lack of adipose tissue and associated metabolic abnormalities including altered lipid metabolism and insulin resistance...
November 8, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Ameena Madan Paramasivan, Archana Purushothaman, Cyrus Desouza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trials (CVOTs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have demonstrated that sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) could reduce major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and cardiovascular mortality independent of a glucose lowering mechanism. SGLT2i trials reported significant results that have generated biologically plausible theories with regard to the macrovascular benefit. In this review, we have summarized and discussed the results of the CANVAS program...
November 5, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Shivani Misra, Katharine R Owen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monogenic forms of diabetes have specific treatments that differ from the standard care provided for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, making the appropriate diagnosis essential. In this review, we discuss current clinical challenges that remain, including improving case-finding strategies, particularly those that have transethnic applicability, and understanding the interpretation of genetic variants as pathogenic, with clinically meaningful impacts. RECENT FINDINGS: Biomarker approaches to the stratification for genetic testing now appear to be most effective in identifying cases of monogenic diabetes, and use of genetic risk scores may also prove useful...
October 30, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Baris Akinci, Rasimcan Meral, Elif Arioglu Oral
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the therapeutic approach for lipodystrophy syndromes with conventional treatment options and metreleptin therapy in detail and to point out the current investigational treatments in development. RECENT FINDINGS: The observation of leptin deficiency in patients with lipodystrophy and the potential of leptin replacement to rescue metabolic abnormalities in animal models of lipodystrophy were followed by the first clinical study of leptin therapy in patients with severe lipodystrophy...
October 29, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Ilaria Cavallari, Alessia Delli Veneri, Ernesto Maddaloni, Rosetta Melfi, Giuseppe Patti, Nicola Napoli, Paolo Pozzilli, Germano Di Sciascio
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To summarize available evidence regarding lipid-lowering interventions for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Statins and non-statin therapies that act through upregulation of LDL receptor expression are associated with similar cardiovascular risk reduction per decrease in LDL cholesterol. In subjects with diabetes, with or without established cardiovascular disease, each 39 mg/dl reduction in LDL cholesterol observed with statins is associated with a 21% relative reduction in the risk of major coronary events at 5 years...
October 29, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
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