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A Mild Phenotype of Overlapping Syndrome With Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Immunoglobulin G: Mimicking Viral Meningitis in a Patient.

Neurologist 2023 December 22
INTRODUCTION: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy, an autoimmune central nervous system disorder characterized by the development of immunoglobulin G reactive with GFAP, has received growing attention in recent years. It is documented that GFAP-immunoglobulin G and other autoantibodies can be both detected in some patients. However, the coexistence of anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and GFAP antibodies is rarely reported.

CASE: A 45-year-old man presented with headache, fever, backache, dysuria, tremble of hands, numbness of lower limbs, without diplopia, decreased vision, or other manifestations of optic neuritis. He was initially diagnosed with viral meningitis. After antiviral therapy, his headache, fever, and dysuria were improved, but the tremble of his upper limbs and numbness of his lower limbs still existed. A lumbar puncture was further performed and found both anti-GFAP and anti-MOG antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. No evidence of other immune disorders or infectious diseases was revealed. Meanwhile, a magnetic resonance scan showed enhancement of spinal pia mater in cervical, thoracic, and lumbar segments. He was then treated with immunoglobulin (intravenous immunoglobulin) therapy (25 g for 5 d), and steroid pulse therapy (methylprednisolone, 1 g for 5 d), followed by a gradual tapering of oral prednisolone.

CONCLUSION: We reported a case of overlapping anti-GFAP and anti-MOG antibody-associated syndrome. This case enriches our understanding of the clinical manifestations of overlapping syndrome and expands the spectrum of this disorder.

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