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Pediatric Profound Dengue Shock Syndrome and Use of Point-of-Care Ultrasound During Mechanical Ventilation to Guide Treatment: Single-Center Retrospective Study, 2013-2021.

OBJECTIVES: Profound dengue shock syndrome (DSS) complicated by severe respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation (MV) accounts for high case fatality rates among PICU-admitted patients. A major challenge to management is the assessment of intravascular volume, which can be hampered by severe plasma leakage and the use of MV.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort, from 2013 to 2021.

PATIENTS: Sixty-seven children with profound DSS supported by MV, some of whom underwent bedside point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) for assessment and monitoring of hemodynamics and fluid administration.

SETTING: PICU of the tertiary Children's Hospital No. 2 in Vietnam.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We analyzed data clinical and laboratory data during PICU stay. In particular, during use of MV (i.e., at times 0-, 6-, and 24-hr after commencement) and fluid resuscitation. The primary study outcome was 28-day in-hospital mortality, and the secondary outcomes were associations with changes in hemodynamics, blood lactate, and vasoactive-inotrope score (VIS). Patients had a median age of 7 years (interquartile range, 4-9). Use of POCUS during fluid management (39/67), as opposed to not using (28/67), was associated with lower mortality (6/39 [15%] vs. 18/28 [64%]; difference 49 % [95% CI, 28-70%], p < 0.001). Use of POCUS was associated with lower odds of death (adjusted odds ratio 0.17 [95% CI, 0.04-0.76], p = 0.02). The utilization of POCUS, versus not, was associated with greater use of resuscitation fluid, and reductions in VIS and pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (PELOD-2) score at 24 hours after MV and PICU discharge.

CONCLUSIONS: In our experience of pediatric patients with profound DSS and undergoing MV (2013-2021), POCUS use was associated with lower odds of death, a higher volume of resuscitation fluid, and improvements in the blood lactate levels, VIS, and PELOD-2 score.

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