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Deep Learning-Based Computer-Aided Detection System for Preoperative Chest Radiographs to Predict Postoperative Pneumonia.

Academic Radiology 2023 March 16
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The role of preoperative chest radiography (CR) for prediction of postoperative pneumonia remains uncertain. We aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for postoperative pneumonia incorporating findings of preoperative CRs evaluated by a deep learning-based computer-aided detection (DL-CAD) system MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included consecutive patients who underwent surgery between January 2019 and March 2020 and divided into development (surgery in 2019) and validation (surgery between January and March 2020) cohorts. Preoperative CRs obtained within 1-month before surgery were analyzed with a commercialized DL-CAD that provided probability values for the presence of 10 different abnormalities in CRs. Logistic regression models to predict postoperative pneumonia were built using clinical variables (clinical model), and both clinical variables and DL-CAD results for preoperative CRs (DL-CAD model). The discriminative performances of the models were evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curves.

RESULTS: In development cohort (n = 19,349; mean age, 57 years; 11,392 men), DL-CAD results for pulmonary nodules (odds ratio [OR, for 1% increase in probability value], 1.007; p = 0.021), consolidation (OR, 1.019; p < 0.001), and cardiomegaly (OR, 1.013; p < 0.001) were independent predictors of postoperative pneumonia and were included in the DL-CAD model. In validation cohort (n = 4957; mean age, 56 years; 2848 men), the DL-CAD model exhibited a higher AUROC than the clinical model (0.843 vs. 0.815; p = 0.012).

CONCLUSION: Abnormalities in preoperative CRs evaluated by a DL-CAD were independent risk factors for postoperative pneumonia. Using DL-CAD results for preoperative CRs led to an improved prediction of postoperative pneumonia.

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