American Journal of Gastroenterology

Christine L Molmenti, Jennifer M Kolb, Jordan J Karlitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Amnon Sonnenberg, Kevin O Turner, Robert M Genta
OBJECTIVES: During the past decades, the prevalence of gastric and duodenal ulcers, as well as Helicobacter pylori infection, has markedly declined. We hypothesized that the decline in H. pylori prevalence has decreased the fraction of H. pylori-positive gastric and duodenal ulcers. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis in a large US population undergoing esophagogastro-duodenoscopy in community-based endoscopy centers. METHODS: The Inform Diagnostics database is a national electronic repository of histopathologic records of patients distributed throughout the United States...
January 15, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
William D Chey, Anthony J Lembo, David P Rosenbaum
OBJECTIVES: Tenapanor is a first-in-class, minimally absorbed, small-molecule inhibitor of the gastrointestinal sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3. This phase 3 trial assessed the efficacy and safety of tenapanor 50 mg b.i.d. for the treatment of patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind study ( identifier NCT02621892), patients with IBS-C were randomized to tenapanor 50 mg b...
January 13, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Waqar Qureshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Chiazotam Ekekezie, Bryce K Perler, Anna Wexler, Catherine Duff, Christian John Lillis, Colleen R Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as an effective treatment option for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and is considered an investigational therapy for a number of other diseases. Social media has facilitated widespread exposure of the public to the gut microbiome and FMT, ultimately acting as a catalyst for the Do-It-Yourself (DIY)-FMT movement. The aims of this study were to identify factors that influenced willingness to pursue DIY-FMT including common indications, screening processes, sample preparation, and self-reported efficacy and safety outcomes...
January 10, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Christopher J Black, Lesley A Houghton, Alexander C Ford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Su Young Kim, Hong Jun Park, Hyun-Soo Kim, Dong Il Park, Jae Myung Cha, Seun-Ja Park, Hwang Choi, Jeong Eun Shin, Chang Soo Eun, Jin Oh Kim, Hyun Gun Kim, Seong-Eun Kim, Cheol Hee Park, Tae Il Kim, Sung Noh Hong
OBJECTIVES: Some neoplastic lesions remain undetected on colonoscopy. To date, no studies have investigated whether combining cap-assisted colonoscopy with chromoendoscopy increases the adenoma detection rate (ADR). This study aimed to compare cap-assisted chromoendoscopy (CAP/CHROMO) with standard colonoscopy (SC) with respect to their efficacy in detecting adenomas. METHODS: This prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial included asymptomatic subjects aged 45-75 years who underwent colonoscopy for the first time at 14 university hospitals...
January 10, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Mindy Winghin Lee, Jonathan S Pourmorady, Loren Laine
OBJECTIVES: Fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) are validated only for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, but are commonly used as a diagnostic test in other clinical settings. We performed a systematic review to assess performance characteristics of FOBT as a diagnostic test for clinical indications. METHODS: Bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies in adult patients with a specific gastrointestinal symptom or condition who underwent FOBT and a reference test and provided data on diagnoses...
January 10, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Olaya I Brewer Gutierrez, Petros C Benias, Mouen A Khashab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Emanuelle Bellaguarda, Stephen Hanauer
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized treatment and overall survival for several different types of cancer. Antibodies to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and to programmed cell death protein 1 and its ligand enhance cytotoxic T-cell survival, thus augmenting antitumor action and consequently inducing immune-related adverse events, of which the most relevant is diarrhea and colitis. This review compiles recent data on pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of immune-mediated colitis (IMC)...
January 9, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Sung Ill Jang, Dong Uk Kim, Jae Hee Cho, Seok Jeong, Jin-Seok Park, Don Haeng Lee, Chang-Il Kwon, Dong Hee Koh, Se Woo Park, Tae Hoon Lee, Hye Sun Lee
OBJECTIVES: Successful biliary cannulation is a prerequisite and important component of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, but conventional cannulation methods (CCMs) have a postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP) rate of 14.1% in patients at high risk for PEP. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of needle-knife fistulotomy (NKF), compared with a CCM, when used for primary biliary access in patients at high risk for developing PEP...
January 7, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Brian M Fung, Simcha Weissman, James H Tabibian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Yao-Chun Hsu, Mindie H Nguyen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Ayesha Shah, Nicholas J Talley, Mike Jones, Bradley J Kendall, Natasha Koloski, Marjorie M Walker, Mark Morrison, Gerald J Holtmann
INTRODUCTION: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and controls. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to December 2018 for studies reporting SIBO prevalence in patients with IBS. Prevalence rates, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of SIBO in patients with IBS and controls were calculated. RESULTS: We included 25 studies with 3,192 patients with IBS and 3,320 controls...
January 6, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Eric D Shah, Christopher V Almario, Brennan M Spiegel, William D Chey
INTRODUCTION: Abdominal pain is a cardinal feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, differences in abdominal pain among IBS subtypes remain unknown. We aimed to characterize abdominal pain symptoms among established IBS subtypes using data from the National Gastrointestinal (GI) Survey. METHODS: Individuals participating in the National GI Survey completed National Institutes of Health GI Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (GI-PROMIS) questionnaires...
January 6, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Scott M Bolton, Amir F Kagalwalla, Nicoleta C Arva, Ming-Yu Wang, Katie Amsden, Hector Melin-Aldana, Evan S Dellon, Paul J Bryce, Barry K Wershil, Joshua B Wechsler
OBJECTIVES: Mast cells (MCs) are increased in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Endoscopic abnormalities, symptoms, and epithelial changes can persist after treatment despite a reduction of esophageal eosinophilia. It is unknown whether this could be due to persistent MC infiltration. We aimed to determine whether patients with histologically inactive (HI) EoE (defined as <15 eosinophils per high-powered field) with persistent symptoms, endoscopic, or epithelial abnormalities after treatment have increased MCs...
January 6, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Allon Kahn, Nicholas J Shaheen, Prasad G Iyer
Because of the rising incidence and lethality of esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's esophagus (BE) is an increasingly important premalignant target for cancer prevention. BE-associated neoplasia can be safely and effectively treated with endoscopic eradication therapy (EET), incorporating tissue resection and ablation. Because EET has proliferated, managing patients after complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia has taken on increasing importance. Recurrence after complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia occurs in 8%-10% of the patients yearly, and the incidence may remain constant over time...
January 3, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Mimi C Tan, Niharika Mallepally, Yan Liu, Hashem B El-Serag, Aaron P Thrift
OBJECTIVES: The risk of noncardia gastric cancer is increased in the presence of gastric intestinal metaplasia. We aimed to identify demographic and lifestyle factors independently associated with the risk of gastric intestinal metaplasia. METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional study of patients attending primary care and endoscopy clinics at the Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center in Houston, Texas, between February 2008 and August 2013. All patients completed standardized questionnaires and underwent endoscopy with gastric mapping biopsies...
January 3, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Jonggi Choi, Gi-Ae Kim, Seungbong Han, Young-Suk Lim
OBJECTIVES: It was suggested that normalization of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels at 1 year of antiviral treatment is associated with a lower risk of hepatic events in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, it remains unclear whether earlier ALT normalization is associated with lower hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk, independent of fatty liver or cirrhosis and on-treatment virological response (VR), in patients with CHB. METHODS: We analyzed 4,639 patients with CHB who initiated treatment with entecavir or tenofovir using landmark analysis and time-dependent Cox analysis...
January 2, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Muhammad Ali Khan, Yuhong Yuan, Umair Iqbal, Sehrish Kamal, Mubeen Khan, Zubair Khan, Wade M Lee, Colin W Howden
INTRODUCTION: Long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been associated with a wide variety of potentially serious adverse effects including a possible increased risk of dementia. Studies evaluating this association have reached divergent conclusions. We aimed to evaluate this proposed association further and to assess the quality of the evidence in its support. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane databases for studies examining a link between PPI use and dementia, up to February 2019...
January 2, 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
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