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Nature Reviews. Disease Primers

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765710/medulloblastoma
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765705/medulloblastoma
#2
REVIEW
Paul A Northcott, Giles W Robinson, Christian P Kratz, Donald J Mabbott, Scott L Pomeroy, Steven C Clifford, Stefan Rutkowski, David W Ellison, David Malkin, Michael D Taylor, Amar Gajjar, Stefan M Pfister
Medulloblastoma (MB) comprises a biologically heterogeneous group of embryonal tumours of the cerebellum. Four subgroups of MB have been described (WNT, sonic hedgehog (SHH), Group 3 and Group 4), each of which is associated with different genetic alterations, age at onset and prognosis. These subgroups have broadly been incorporated into the WHO classification of central nervous system tumours but still need to be accounted for to appropriately tailor disease risk to therapy intensity and to target therapy to disease biology...
February 14, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705286/kaposi-sarcoma
#3
REVIEW
Ethel Cesarman, Blossom Damania, Susan E Krown, Jeffrey Martin, Mark Bower, Denise Whitby
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) gained public attention as an AIDS-defining malignancy; its appearance on the skin was a highly stigmatizing sign of HIV infection during the height of the AIDS epidemic. The widespread introduction of effective antiretrovirals to control HIV by restoring immunocompetence reduced the prevalence of AIDS-related KS, although KS does occur in individuals with well-controlled HIV infection. KS also presents in individuals without HIV infection in older men (classic KS), in sub-Saharan Africa (endemic KS) and in transplant recipients (iatrogenic KS)...
January 31, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705285/kaposi-sarcoma
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679436/female-subfertility
#5
REVIEW
Cynthia M Farquhar, Siladitya Bhattacharya, Sjoerd Repping, Sebastiaan Mastenbroek, Mohan S Kamath, Jane Marjoribanks, Jacky Boivin
Subfertility is common and affects one in six couples, half of whom lack an explanation for their delay in conceiving. Developments in the diagnosis and treatment of subfertility over the past 50 years have been truly remarkable. Indeed, current generations of couples with subfertility are more fortunate than previous generations, as they have many more opportunities to become parents. The timely access to effective treatment for subfertility is important as many couples have a narrow window of opportunity before the age-related effects of subfertility limit the likelihood of success...
January 24, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679419/female-subfertility
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30655539/brain-metastases
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30655533/brain-metastases
#8
REVIEW
Achal Singh Achrol, Robert C Rennert, Carey Anders, Riccardo Soffietti, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, Lakshmi Nayak, Solange Peters, Nils D Arvold, Griffith R Harsh, Patricia S Steeg, Steven D Chang
An estimated 20% of all patients with cancer will develop brain metastases, with the majority of brain metastases occurring in those with lung, breast and colorectal cancers, melanoma or renal cell carcinoma. Brain metastases are thought to occur via seeding of circulating tumour cells into the brain microvasculature; within this unique microenvironment, tumour growth is promoted and the penetration of systemic medical therapies is limited. Development of brain metastases remains a substantial contributor to overall cancer mortality in patients with advanced-stage cancer because prognosis remains poor despite multimodal treatments and advances in systemic therapies, which include a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted therapies...
January 17, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30631077/coeliac-disease
#9
REVIEW
Katri Lindfors, Carolina Ciacci, Kalle Kurppa, Knut E A Lundin, Govind K Makharia, M Luisa Mearin, Joseph A Murray, Elena F Verdu, Katri Kaukinen
Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy against dietary gluten present in wheat, rye and barley and is one of the most common lifelong food-related disorders worldwide. Coeliac disease is also considered to be a systemic disorder characterized by a variable combination of gluten-related signs and symptoms and disease-specific antibodies in addition to enteropathy. The ingestion of gluten leads to the generation of harmful gluten peptides, which, in predisposed individuals, can induce adaptive and innate immune responses...
January 10, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30631075/coeliac-disease
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30617281/rhabdomyosarcoma
#11
REVIEW
Stephen X Skapek, Andrea Ferrari, Abha A Gupta, Philip J Lupo, Erin Butler, Janet Shipley, Frederic G Barr, Douglas S Hawkins
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and represents a high-grade neoplasm of skeletal myoblast-like cells. Decades of clinical and basic research have gradually improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of RMS and helped to optimize clinical care. The two major subtypes of RMS, originally characterized on the basis of light microscopic features, are driven by fundamentally different molecular mechanisms and pose distinct clinical challenges. Curative therapy depends on control of the primary tumour, which can arise at many distinct anatomical sites, as well as controlling disseminated disease that is known or assumed to be present in every case...
January 7, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30617267/rhabdomyosarcoma
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30546064/low-back-pain
#13
REVIEW
Johan W S Vlaeyen, Chris G Maher, Katja Wiech, Jan Van Zundert, Carolina Beraldo Meloto, Luda Diatchenko, Michele C Battié, Marielle Goossens, Bart Koes, Steven J Linton
Low back pain affects individuals of all ages and is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Despite advancements in assessment and treatment methods, the management of low back pain remains a challenge for researchers and clinicians alike. One reason for the limited success in identifying effective treatments is the large variation in the manifestations, possible causes, precipitating and maintaining factors, course, prognosis and consequences in terms of activity interference and quality of life...
December 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30546035/low-back-pain
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30523303/polycystic-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
Carsten Bergmann, Lisa M Guay-Woodford, Peter C Harris, Shigeo Horie, Dorien J M Peters, Vicente E Torres
Cystic kidneys are common causes of end-stage renal disease, both in children and in adults. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) are cilia-related disorders and the two main forms of monogenic cystic kidney diseases. ADPKD is a common disease that mostly presents in adults, whereas ARPKD is a rarer and often more severe form of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) that usually presents perinatally or in early childhood. Cell biological and clinical research approaches have expanded our knowledge of the pathogenesis of ADPKD and ARPKD and revealed some mechanistic overlap between them...
December 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30523252/polycystic-kidney-disease
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30467372/author-correction-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Massimo Filippi, Amit Bar-Or, Fredrik Piehl, Paolo Preziosa, Alessandra Solari, Sandra Vukusic, Maria A Rocca
In the originally published version of this article, in Table 4, Ocrelizumab was incorrectly referred to as an anti-CD25 antibody. This has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article to an anti-CD20 antibody.
November 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30467370/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Mara G Coyle, Susan B Brogly, Mahmoud S Ahmed, Stephen W Patrick, Hendrée E Jones
Neonatal abstinence syndrome refers to the signs and symptoms attributed to the cessation of prenatal exposure (via placental transfer) to various substances. This Primer focuses on neonatal abstinence syndrome caused by opioid use during pregnancy - neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). As the global prevalence of opioid use has alarmingly increased, so has the incidence of NOWS. NOWS can manifest with varying severity or not at all, for unknown reasons, but is likely to be associated with multiple factors, both maternal (for example, smoking and additional substance exposures) and neonatal (gestational age, sex and genetics)...
November 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30467361/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30442957/bronchiectasis
#20
REVIEW
James D Chalmers, Anne B Chang, Sanjay H Chotirmall, Raja Dhar, Pamela J McShane
Bronchiectasis refers to abnormal dilatation of the bronchi. Airway dilatation can lead to failure of mucus clearance and increased risk of infection. Pathophysiological mechanisms of bronchiectasis include persistent bacterial infections, dysregulated immune responses, impaired mucociliary clearance and airway obstruction. These mechanisms can interact and self-perpetuate, leading over time to impaired lung function. Patients commonly present with productive cough and recurrent chest infections, and the diagnosis of bronchiectasis is based on clinical symptoms and radiological findings...
November 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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