Evolution of drug delivery system from viewpoint of controlled intracellular trafficking and selective tissue targeting toward future nanomedicine

Yuma Yamada, Yusuke Sato, Takashi Nakamura, Hideyoshi Harashima
Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society 2020 September 8
Due to the rapid changes that have occurred in the field of drug discovery and the recent developments in the early 21st century, the role of drug delivery systems (DDS) has become increasingly more important. For the past 20 years, our laboratory has been developing gene delivery systems based on lipid-based delivery systems. One of our efforts has been directed toward developing a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) by modifying the particle surface with octaarginine, which resulted in a remarkably enhanced cellular uptake and improved intracellular trafficking of plasmid DNA (pDNA). When we moved to in vivo applications, however, we were faced with the PEG-dilemma and we shifted our strategy to the incorporation of ionizable cationic lipids into our system. This resulted in some dramatic improvements over our original design and this can be attributed to the development of a new lipid library. We have also developed a mitochondrial targeting system based on a membrane fusion mechanism using a MITO-Porter, which can deliver nucleic acids/pDNA into the matrix of mitochondria. After the appearance of antibody medicines, Opdivo, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, has established cancer immunology as the 4th strategy in cancer therapy. Our DDS technologies can also be applied to this new field of cancer therapy to cure cancer by controlling our immune mechanisms. The latest studies are summarized in this review article.

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