An immunohistochemical study of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC): a possible prognostic biomarker

Kanglai Wei, Zhihua Ye, Zuyun Li, Yiwu Dang, Xin Chen, Na Huang, Chongxi Bao, Tingqing Gan, Lihua Yang, Gang Chen
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 2016 February 9, 14 (1): 34

BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is an atypical CDK which plays a vital role in several cancers via regulating migration and motility of cancer cells. However, the clinicopathological impact and function of CDK5 in lung cancer remain poorly understood. The present study was aimed at exploring expression and clinicopathological significance of CDK5 in lung cancer.

METHODS: There were 395 samples of lung tissue including 365 lung tumors (339 non-small cell lung cancers and 26 small cell lung cancers) and 30 samples of normal lung. CDK5 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry on lung tissue microarrays.

RESULTS: Over expression was detected in lung cancer compared with normal lung tissues (P=0.001). Furthermore, area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of CDK5 was 0.685 (95% CI 0.564~0.751, P=0.004). In lung cancer, we also discovered close correlations between CDK5 and pathological grading (r=0.310, P<0.001), TNM stage (r=0.155, P=0.003), and lymph node metastasis (r=0.279, P<0.001) by using Spearman analysis. In two subgroups of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), the expression of CDK5 was also higher than that of normal lung tissue, respectively (P=0.001 and P=0.004). Moreover, in NSCLCs, Spearman analysis revealed that expression of CDK5 was correlated with TNM stages (r=0.129, P=0.017), lymph node metastasis (r=0.365, P<0.001), and pathological grading (r=0.307, P<0.001), respectively. The significant correlation was also found between CDK5 expression and TNM stages (r=0.415, P=0.049) and lymphatic metastasis (r=0.469, P=0.024) in SCLCs.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this present study suggest that the CDK5 expression is associated with several clinicopathological factors linked with poorer prognosis.

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