Prognostic nomogram for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

Li Xu, Zhen-Wei Peng, Min-Shan Chen, Ming Shi, Yao-Jun Zhang, Rong-Ping Guo, Xiao-Jun Lin, Wan-Yee Lau
Journal of Hepatology 2015, 63 (1): 122-30

BACKGROUND & AIMS: To establish an effective prognostic nomogram for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).

METHODS: The nomogram was constructed based on data obtained from a retrospective study on 2938 patients who received TACE as an initial therapy from 2000 to 2008. The predictive accuracy and discriminative ability of the nomogram were compared with seven current commonly used staging systems on HCC by using data obtained from a prospective study on a cohort of 647 patients treated from January 2011 to December 2011 at the same institution. Additional external validation was performed using a data set (n=221) from another institution.

RESULTS: Portal vein invasion, tumor number, tumor capsule, alpha fetoprotein, aspartate aminotransferase, and indocyanine green retention at 15 min formed the basis of the nomogram. The concordance index (C-index) of the nomogram was 0.755, which was significantly better than the American Joint Committee on Cancer seventh edition (0.612), the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer system (0.692), the Okuda system (0.579), the Japan Integrated Staging system (0.637), Cancer of the Liver Italian Program system (0.683), the Chinese University Prognostic Index (0.637) and the Groupe d'Etude et de Traitement du Carcinome Hepatocellulaire (0.577) (p<0.001 for all). The calibration curve for predicting probability of survival showed a good agreement between the nomogram and actual observation. The findings were supported by the external validation cohort. The nomogram gave better discrimination than the seven staging systems.

CONCLUSIONS: The proposed nomogram gave accurate prognostic prediction in patients with unresectable HCC after treatment with TACE.

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