RAFTK/Pyk2 tyrosine kinase mediates the association of p190 RhoGAP with RasGAP and is involved in breast cancer cell invasion

S Zrihan-Licht, Y Fu, J Settleman, K Schinkmann, L Shaw, I Keydar, S Avraham, H Avraham
Oncogene 2000 March 2, 19 (10): 1318-28
Focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton are involved in cell growth, shape and movement and in tumor invasion. Mitogen-induced changes in actin cytoskeleton are accompanied by changes in the tyrosine phosphorylation of several focal adhesion proteins. In this study, we have investigated the role of RAFTK, a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase related to focal adhesion kinase (FAK), in heregulin-mediated signal transduction in breast cancer cells. Stimulation of T47D cells with heregulin (HRG) induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of RAFTK and the formation of a multiprotein complex. Analyses of the members of the HRG-stimulated complex revealed that RAFTK is associated with p190 RhoGAP (p190), RasGAP and ErbB-2, and plays an essential role in mediating the tyrosine phosphorylation of p190 by Src. Mutation of the Src binding site within RAFTK (402) abolished the phosphorylation of p190. In addition, upon HRG stimulation of T47D cells, association of ErbB-2 with RAFTK was observed and found to be indirect and mediated by Src. Expression of wild-type RAFTK (WT) significantly increased MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell invasion, while expression of the kinase-mutated RAFTK-R457 (KM) or the Src binding site mutant RAFTK (402) did not affect this cell invasion. Furthermore, HRG leads to the activation of MAP kinase which is mediated by RAFTK. These findings indicate that RAFTK serves as a mediator and an integration point between the GAP proteins and HRG-mediated signaling in breast cancer cells, and implicate RAFTK involvement in the MAP kinase pathway and in breast cancer cell invasion.

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