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American Journal of Orthopedics

Erik N Hansen, Kevin L Ong, Edmund Lau, Steven M Kurtz, Jess H Lonner
Publications on the prevalence of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the United States using a single database may have underestimated the "true" number of cases performed, given that several unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) patients are <65 years and have private insurance. The prevalence of UKA in elderly (≥65 years) and younger (<65 years) populations was evaluated using the 2002 to 2011 5% sample of the Medicare data (Part B) and the 2004 to June 2012 MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases, respectively...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Spencer Summers, Luis C Grau, Dustin Massel, Alvin Ong, Fabio Orozco, Samuel Rosas, Victor Hernandez
The ideal mode of fixation for patients with femoral neck fractures is not well defined in the current literature. This study describes the recent trends in surgical management of femoral neck fractures with an analysis on perioperative outcomes. The National Hospital Discharge Survey was used to identify femoral neck fractures in the United States between 1990 and 2007 (n = 1,155,960) treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), total hip arthroplasty (THA), or hemiarthroplasty (HA). Trends were examined over the following 3 time periods: 1990 to 1995 (group 1), 1996 to 2001 (group 2), and 2002 to 2007 (group 3)...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Benjamin Zmistowski, William Warrender, Michael Livesey, Alex Girden, Gerald R Williams, Surena Namdari
Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) has proved a cost-effective, reproducible procedure for multiple shoulder pathologies. As utilization of TSA continues to grow, it is important to investigate procedure diversity, training, and other characteristics of surgeons performing TSA. To identify surgeons performing TSA in the Medicare population, the Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Databases from 2012 through 2014 were used. This dataset includes any provider who bills Medicare >10 times with a single billing code...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Christian M Curatolo, Gregory Bach, Christopher E Mutty, John M Marzo
Current literature is limited with respect to the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) and clinical conditions relating to the PTFJ. Diagnosis and treatment of conditions that affect the PTFJ are not well described and are a topic of debate among many physicians. This manuscript aims to review and summarize the most recent literature that relates to traumatic dislocations, fractures, chronic instability, and osteoarthritis, with a focus on both diagnostic and treatment strategies of these conditions. We also review PTFJ anatomy, biomechanics, and the clinical presentation of some common PTFJ conditions...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Todd Furman, Holly Silvers-Granelli
Soccer players recovering from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have better options for treatment today than they did 25 years ago. Surgical techniques have improved, and rehabilitation protocols have evolved considerably. Although the rehabilitation community is doing a better job of treating this patient population, the evidence does demonstrate that both re-injury and return- to-play (RTP) rates are still suboptimal. Most protocols focus on normalizing strength and range of motion (ROM) and achieving limb symmetry with soccer-specific movements...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Venkat Boddapati, Michael C Fu, Edwin P Su, Peter K Sculco, Stefano A Bini, David J Mayman
Systemic corticosteroids are used to treat a number of medical conditions; however, they are associated with numerous adverse effects. The impact of preoperative chronic corticosteroid use on postoperative outcomes following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the independent effect of chronic systemic preoperative steroid use on short-term perioperative complications and readmissions after THA. All patients undergoing primary THA in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program registry from 2005 to 2015 were identified...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Henry B Ellis, Garrett Dennis, Philip L Wilson
Patellofemoral instability commonly occurs in the young patient, and, often, skeletal immaturity may be a risk factor for possible recurrence. Treatment considerations, including operative and nonoperative management, are based on anatomic factors. A medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction is a treatment option for a skeletally immature patient with recurrent instability or for patients with a high risk of patellofemoral instability recurrence. A physeal-sparing MPFL reconstruction technique that considers the origin of the MPFL to be distal to the distal femoral physis may be employed...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Rikki Keen
Soccer is the world's most popular sport. As the sport has grown, so have the physical demands and the search for ways to edge out the competition with the use of sports science and nutrition. The demands, which include intense training, ≥90 minutes matches, congested fixtures, and travel, lead to increased energy and nutrient requirements, stress on the body, and risk of impaired sleep cycles. Identifying key areas to enhance a player's performance is an ongoing effort because of individual differences. Moreover, new information is being discovered via research, and advancing technology to measure performance is always evolving...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Jesse W Allert, Thomas R Sellers, Peter Simon, Kaitlyn N Christmas, Shaan Patel, Mark A Frankle
The decision to perform rotator cuff repair (RCR) versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) for massive rotator cuff tear (MCT) without arthritis can be difficult. Our aim was to identify preoperative variables that are influential in a surgeon's decision to choose one of the two procedures and evaluate outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed 181 patients older than 65 who underwent RCR or rTSA for MCT without arthritis. Clinical and radiographic data were collected and used to evaluate the preoperative variables in each of these two patient populations and assess outcomes...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Taylor J Freetly, Yair D Kissin, Andrew Carbone, Michael A Kelly
Stress fractures are often missed, especially in unusual clinical settings. We report on 2 patients who presented to our orthopedic surgery clinic with incidental findings of asymptomatic proximal fibular tension side stress fractures in severe longstanding varus osteoarthritic knees. Initial plain films demonstrated an expansile deformity of the proximal fibular shaft, and differential diagnosis included a healed or healing fracture versus possible neoplasm. Magnetic resonance imaging with and without gadolinium was utilized to rule out the latter prior to planned total knee arthroplasty...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Lauren Bledsoe, Kaitlyn Alessi, Jose B Toro, Brian Giordano, Bryan T Hanypsiak
Fragility fractures are estimated to affect 3 million people annually in the United States. As they are associated with a significant mortality rate, the prevention of these fractures should be a priority for orthopedists. At-risk patients include the elderly and those with thyroid disease, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Osteoporosis is diagnosed by the presence of a fragility fracture or by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the absence of a fragility fracture. In 2011, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that all women ≥65 years should be screened for osteoporosis by DXA...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Allen Nicholson, Logan Petit, Anthony Egger, Paul Saluan, Cordelia W Carter
Discoid meniscus is a rare anatomical variant with altered morphology and structure that can sometimes present symptomatically, typically in the pediatric population. The discoid meniscus is usually in the lateral compartment of the knee and is characterized by a partial or complete filling-in of central meniscal tissue, increased meniscal thickness, disorganization of longitudinal collagen fibers, and sometimes lack of peripheral attachments. These changes to both the macro- and micro-structure of the meniscus predispose affected patients to increased rates of both meniscal tears and mechanical symptoms...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
S Joseph de Groot, Justin W Arner, Clair N Smith, James P Bradley
The use of knotless suture anchors has increased in popularity; however, there is a paucity of literature examining the difference in clinical outcomes with traditional knotted fixation. It was hypothesized that knotless fixation would provide superior clinical outcomes, improved return to play (RTP), and lower revision rates as compared with traditional knotted fixation in the repair of SLAP IIb tears. Seventy-four athletes who underwent arthroscopic SLAP IIb repair with traditional (n = 42) and knotless anchors (n = 32) by a single surgeon were evaluated after a minimum 2-year follow...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Muthana Sartawi, Hafizur Rahman, James Kohlmann, Ross Leighton, Mariana E Kersh
The subvastus (SV) approach is a well-known muscle- and tendon-sparing approach for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), which has been shown in some studies to provide better outcomes in the visual analog pain score (VAS), knee range of motion (ROM), straight-leg raise, as well as faster rehabilitation, compared with the standard medial parapatellar (MP) approach. We previously described a new knee replacement technique known as the modified intervastus (MIV) approach. The MIV approach is a muscle- and tendon-sparing approach that is extensile and simple to perform...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Jay Panchal, Gerard Malanga, Mitchell Sheinkop
The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of using autologous, micro-fractured, minimally manipulated adipose tissue in patients with refractory knee osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 17 subjects (26 knees) with a median age of 72 years (range: 54-78 years) and a history of knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence, grade of 3 or 4) underwent treatment with ultrasound-guided injection of micro-fractured adipose tissue. Micro-fractured fat was obtained using a minimal manipulation technique in a closed system (Lipogems), without the addition of enzymes or any other additives...
November 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
James N Irvine, Sean Lynch, Bryan T Hanypsiak, Charles A Popkin
Ice hockey is a fast-paced, collision sport requiring tremendous skill and finesse, yet ice hockey can be a harsh and violent game. It has one of the highest musculoskeletal injury rates in all of competitive sports. Razor sharp skates, aluminum sticks and boards made from high density polyethylene (HDPE), all contribute to the intrinsic hazards of the game. The objective of this article is to review evaluation, management, and return-to-the-rink guidelines after common lower extremity ice hockey injuries.
November 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Alejandro J Centurion, Harrison Youmans, Ibrahim Mamdouh Zeini
Improvements in ultrasound technology have increased the popularity and use of ultrasound as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality for many soccer-related musculoskeletal (MSK) injuries. As a dynamic imaging modality, ultrasound offers increased accuracy and efficacy with minimally invasive procedures, such as guided injections, percutaneous tenotomy, and regenerative therapies, in the clinical setting. Emerging evidence indicates that regenerative therapies, such as platelet-rich-plasma (PRP), mesenchymal stem cells, and amniotic products, are a promising treatment for many MSK injuries and are gaining popularity among professional athletes...
October 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Niv Marom, Riley J Williams
Upper limb injuries in soccer represent only a marginal portion of injuries, however this is mainly true for outfield players. Goalkeepers are reported to have up to 5 times more upper extremity injuries, many of them requiring substantial time-loss for treatment and rehabilitation. The most common upper extremity injury locations are the shoulder/clavicle followed by the hand/finger/thumb, elbow, wrist, forearm, and upper arm. The mechanism of injury, presentation, physical examination, and imaging features all play a significant role in reaching the correct diagnosis...
October 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
M Terese Whipple, Aaron L Baggish, Elizabeth M Pieroth, George T Chiampas
Soccer requires significant physical conditioning and endurance, as well as the physicality required for contact play. In order to keep athletes safe, it is important that coaches, medical staff, and the players themselves are educated on the most common dangers to their health that they may encounter on a soccer pitch. This article aims to review the current literature and recommendations on concussion, cardiovascular considerations, and heat-related illness as they relate to competitive soccer, with a goal of educating all those who help to keep athletes healthy and competing to their full potential...
October 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Alan M Hirahara, Wyatt J Andersen
Partial articular-sided supraspinatus tendon avulsion (PASTA) tears are a common clinical problem that can require surgical intervention to reduce patient symptoms. Currently, no consensus has been reached regarding the optimal repair technique. The PASTA Bridge technique was developed by the senior author to address these types of lesions. A controlled laboratory study was performed comparing the PASTA Bridge with a standard transtendon rotator cuff repair to confirm its biomechanical efficacy. A 50% articular-sided partial tear of the supraspinatus tendon was created on 6 matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders...
October 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
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