Di Sha, Pei Du, Linhai Wu
Governments use policy interventions to mitigate food safety risks. Despite its crucial role, empirical studies evaluating the effectiveness of China's food safety policy tools are scarce. Drawing on a dataset encompassing 11,236 food safety policy texts from 2005 to 2021 and the incidence of problematic food products in the Eastern, Central, and Western regions of China, this study employs Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) models to facilitate the classification of policy tools and forecast the effectiveness of policy combinations...
April 12, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Amrit Pal, Amy Mann, Henk C den Bakker
Edible insects offer a promising protein source for humans, but their food safety risks have not been previously investigated within the United States. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the microbial content of processed edible insect products. A total of eight different types of edible insect products, including diving beetles, silkworms, grasshoppers, Jamaican crickets, mealworms, mole crickets, whole roasted crickets, and 100 % pure cricket powder, were purchased from large online retailer for the analysis...
April 12, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Xuerui Yang, Robert Scharff
Leafy green vegetables are a major source of foodborne illnesses. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to estimate attribution and burden of illness estimates for leafy greens. This study combines results from three outbreak-based attribution models with illness incidence and economic cost models to develop comprehensive pathogen-specific burden estimates for leafy greens and their subcategories in the United States. We find that up to 9.18% (90% CI: 5.81%-15.18%) of foodborne illnesses linked to identified pathogens are attributed to leafy greens...
April 10, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Joseph M Bosilevac, Tatum S Katz, Terrance M Arthur, Norasak Kalchayanand, Tommy L Wheeler
Cattle are considered a primary reservoir of Shiga-toxin (stx) producing Escherichia coli that cause enterohemorrhagic disease (EHEC), and contaminated beef products are one vehicle of transmission to humans. However, animals entering the beef harvest process originate from differing production systems: feedlots, dairies, and beef breeding herds. The objective of this study was to determine if fed cattle, cull dairy, and or cull beef cattle carry differing proportions and serogroups of EHEC at harvest. Feces were collected via rectoanal mucosal swabs (RAMS) from 1,039 fed cattle, 1,058 cull dairy cattle, and 1,018 cull beef cattle at harvest plants in seven U...
April 8, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Anastasia Lytou, Lemonia-Christina Fengou, Antonis Koukourikos, Pythagoras Karampiperis, Panagiotis Zervas, Aske Schultz Carstensen, Alessia Del Genio, Jens Michael Carstensen, Nette Schultz, Nikos Chorianopoulos, George-John Nychas
Monitoring food quality throughout the supply chain in a rapid and cost-effective way allows on-time decision making, reducing food waste and increasing sustainability. In that framework, a portable multispectral imaging sensor was used, while the acquired data in combination with neural networks were evaluated for the prediction of fish fillets quality. Images of fish fillets were acquired using samples from both aquaculture and retail stores of different packaging and fish parts. The obtained products (air or vacuum packaged) were further stored at different temperature conditions...
April 5, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Jonathan D Sexton, Jack L Picton, Brandon Herdt, Elaine Black, Kelly A Reynolds
Hand hygiene is broadly recognized as a critical intervention in reducing the spread of disease-causing pathogens in both professional and personal uses. In this study, the impact of antibacterial (AB) or non-antibacterial soaps on removal and post-wash transfer of E. coli following the handling of raw poultry was assessed. Baseline bacterial contamination ranged between 107 and 109 CFU per hand. Hands were washed for 30 seconds in 40°C +/- 2°C tap water using 2 mL of AB soap (0.5% and 1.0% Chloroxylenol, 0...
April 3, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Kathleen A Glass, Max Golden, Brandon Wanless, Tina Conklin, Jeannine P Schweihofer, Kristin Schill
Cooked, uncured meat products packaged under reduced oxygen packaging conditions require the control of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic pathogens if they are held at temperatures greater than 3°C at retail or consumer level. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum in cooked, uncured shredded turkey and pork formulated with synthetic or clean label antimicrobials. Treatments of shredded meat products were prepared with or without antimicrobials using turkey thigh or breast that were cooked to 85°C, shredded, and chilled before inoculation with the target pathogen...
March 30, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Sriya Sunil, Sarah I Murphy, Renato H Orsi, Renata Ivanek, Martin Wiedmann
Digital tools to predict produce shelf life have the potential to reduce food waste and improve consumer satisfaction. To address this need, we (i) performed an observational study on the microbial quality of baby spinach, (ii) completed growth experiments of bacteria that are representative of the baby spinach microbiota, and (iii) developed an initial simulation model of bacterial growth on baby spinach. Our observational data showed that the predominant genera found on baby spinach were Pseudomonas, Pantoea and Exiguobacterium...
March 27, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Devita Kireina, Valeria R Parreira, Lawrence Goodridge, Jeffrey M Farber
Cronobacter sakazakii can cause severe illnesses in infants, predominantly in preterm newborns, with consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF) being the major vehicle of infection. Using a dynamic human gastrointestinal simulator called the SHIME, this study examined the effects of gastric acidity and gastric digestion time of newborns on the survival and expression of stress genes of C. sakazakii. Individual strains, inoculated at 7 log CFU/mL into reconstituted PIF, were exposed to gastric pH values of 4...
March 20, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Keith R Schneider, Mari Schroeder, Alan Gutierrez, Karuna Kharel, Renée Goodrich Schneider, Amy Harder, Amanda Philyaw Perez, Kristin Woods, Laurel L Dunn, Paul Priyesh, Christopher Gunter, Elena Rogers, Chip Simmons, Lynette Johnston, Chad Carter, Thomas M Taylor, Alejandro Castillo, Juan Anciso, Joseph Masabni, Laura K Strawn, Amber Vallotton, Katelynn Stull, Taylor O'Bannon, Michelle D Danyluk
The Produce Safety Alliance (PSA) grower training was introduced in 2016 as the standardized curriculum to meet the training requirements of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Food Safety Modernization Act's (FSMA) Produce Safety Rule (PSR). The PSR states that at least one supervisor or responsible party from each farm must have successfully completed this food safety training or one equivalent to the standardized curriculum, as recognized by the FDA. This study evaluated the effectiveness of PSA trainings conducted between 2017-2019 in the Southern United States by the Southern Regional Center for Food Safety Training, Outreach and Technical Assistance by analyzing pre- and post-test assessments...
March 15, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Erika M Estrada, Linda J Harris
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strain diversity in California pistachios is limited; some strains have persisted in the pistachio supply chain for ≥10 years. Representative isolates of six persistent strains and three sporadic strains isolated from California pistachios were selected to evaluate copper resistance, growth in pistachio hull slurry, biofilm formation, desiccation tolerance, and survival during subsequent storage. The presence of a copper homeostasis and silver resistant island sequence in three of the persistent strains was associated with an increase in tolerance to CuSO4 from 7...
March 15, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Arshpreet Kaur Khattra, Surabhi Wason, Kevin Thompson, Andy Mauromoustakos, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Jennifer C Acuff
A surrogate is commonly used for process validations. The industry often uses the target log cycle reduction for the test (LCRTest ) microorganism (surrogate) to be equal to the desired log cycle reduction for the target (LCRTarget ) microorganism (pathogen). When the surrogate (is too conservative with far greater resistance than the pathogen, the food may be overprocessed with quality and cost consequences. In aseptic processing, the Institute for Thermal Processing Specialists recommends using relative resistance (DTarget )/(DTest ) to calculate LCRTest (product of LCRTarget and relative resistance)...
March 15, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Randall S Singer, Timothy J Johnson
Bacitracin is an antimicrobial used in the feed or water of poultry in the U.S. for the prevention, treatment, and control of clostridial diseases such as necrotic enteritis. Concern has been raised that bacitracin can select for antimicrobial resistant bacteria that can be transmitted to humans and subsequently cause disease that is more difficult to treat because of the resistance. The objective of the present study was to perform a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) to estimate the potential risk in the U...
March 14, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Clara M Diekman, Camryn Cook, Laura K Strawn, Michelle D Danyluk
Limited data exist on the environmental factors that impact pathogen prevalence in the soil. The prevalence of foodborne pathogens, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, and the prevalence and concentration of generic E. coli in Florida's agricultural soils was evaluated to understand the potential risk of microbial contamination at the pre-harvest level. For all organisms but L. monocytogenes, a longitudinal field study was performed in three geographically distributed agricultural areas across Florida. At each location, 20 unique 5x5 m field sampling sites were selected, soil was collected and evaluated for Salmonella presence (25 g) and E...
March 14, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Kavita Patil, Manita Adhikari, Peter Rubinelli, Karina Desiree, Kelly R Vierck, Jennifer C Acuff
Sous-videcooking is a growing trend among retailers and consumers. Foodborne pathogens may survive the cooking if non-validated parameters are used or if pathogens have enhanced thermalresistance. Pathogen inactivation from sous-vide cooking was determined when introduced directly to beef products or via contaminated spices, and with or without a finishing step. Beef products (ground beef, tenderized and non-tenderized steaks) were inoculated with pathogens (Salmonella Montevideo and Escherichia coli O157:NM) three ways: 1) directly onto the meat 2) ground black pepper incorporated into the recipe 3) ground pepper equilibrated at 30% RH (4 d) prior to incorporation...
March 12, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Shunsuke Ikeuchi, Shouhei Hirose, Kohei Shimada, Ayako Koyama, Shoji Ishida, Naoto Katayama, Takehiko Suzuki, Akiko Tokairin, Mayumi Tsukamoto, Yuki Tsue, Kenichi Yamaguchi, Hideo Osako, Sachiko Hiwatashi, Yumi Chiba, Hiroshi Akiyama, Hideki Hayashidani, Yukiko Hara-Kudo
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen worldwide. It is necessary to control and prevent STEC contamination on beef carcasses in slaughterhouses because STEC infection is associated with beef consumption. However, the frequencies of STEC contamination of beef carcasses in various slaughterhouses in Japan are not well known. Herein, we investigated the contamination of beef carcasses with STEC in slaughterhouses to assess the potential risks of STEC. In total, 524 gauze samples were collected from the surfaces of beef carcasses at 12 domestic slaughterhouses from November 2020 to February 2023...
March 12, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Xian-Shu Fu, Chao-Feng Li, Qing-Ge Ji, Xiao-Ping Yu, Zi-Hong Ye, Ming-Zhou Zhang, Biao Zhang, Yu-Lou Qiu
Adding an appropriate amount of copper to feed can promote the growth and development of livestock; however, a large amount of heavy metal copper can accumulate in livestock through the enrichment effect, which poses a serious threat to human health. Traditional Cu2+ detection relies heavily on complex and expensive instruments, such as inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS); thus, convenient and simple rapid detection technologies are urgently needed...
March 12, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Marisa Matias de França, Renata Maria Corrêa Santos de Oliveira, Silvia Helena Seraphin de Godoy, Thais Camilo Corrêa, Maria Fernanda de Castro Burbarelli, Leonardo de Oliveira Seno, Anna Luiza Farias Alencar, Fernanda Bovo, Andrezza Maria Fernandes, Ricardo Luiz de Souza Moro
This study aimed to compare AFM1 occurrence in different cheese types produced by organic and conventional systems; and to evaluate the risk of food exposure to AFM1. A total of 176 commercial cheeses of 17 types were analyzed, 84 of organic and 92 of conventional production. Determination of AFM1 was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), being detected in 30.5% of samples, with 4.8% of organic cheese samples presenting quantifiable AFM1 values between 0.88 and 1.50 μg/kg. On the other hand, 4...
March 8, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Aaron A Baumann, Addison K Myers, Niloofar Khajeh-Kazerooni, Benjamin Rosenthal, Mark Jenkins, Celia O'Brien, Lorraine Fuller, Mark Morgan, Scott C Lenaghan
Ozone is a potent disinfecting agent used to treat potable water and wastewater, effectively clearing protozoa such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. It is unclear whether ozone treatment of water or fresh produce can reduce the spread of the emerging parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis, which causes cyclosporiasis in humans. Obtaining viable C. cayetanensis oocysts to evaluate inactivation methods is challenging because we lack the means to propagate them in vitro, because of delays in case reporting, and because health departments typically add inactivating fixatives to clinical specimens...
March 7, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
Joelle K Salazar, Megan L Fay, Bashayer A Khouja, Madhuri Mate, Xinyi Zhou, Pravalika Lingareddygari, Girvin Liggans
Fresh vegetables have been linked to multiple foodborne outbreaks in the U.S., with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica identified as leading causes. Beyond raw vegetables, cooked vegetables can also pose food safety concerns due to improper cooking temperature and time combinations or post-cooking contamination. Cooked vegetables, having had their native microbiota reduced through heat inactivation, might provide an environment that favors the growth of pathogens due to diminished microbial competition...
March 4, 2024: Journal of Food Protection
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