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Journal of Food Protection

Q I Zhou, Y U Zhao, Hui Dang, Yuanyue Tang, Baoshan Zhang
This study investigated the antimicrobial mechanism of phytic acid (PA) and its antibacterial effects in combination with ethanol. The MIC of PA on Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, and Salmonella Typhimurium CICC 27483 were 0.24, 0.20, 0.26, and 0.28% (w/w), respectively. E. coli ATCC 11229 and S. aureus ATCC 6538P were selected to investigate the mechanism of PA by analyzing its effects at 1/2MIC and at MIC on the cell morphology, intracellular ATP, and cell membrane integrity...
April 22, 2019: Journal of Food Protection
Yangjin Jung, Anna C S Porto-Fett, Bradley A Shoyer, Elizabeth Henry, Laura E Shane, Manuela Osoria, John B Luchansky
We surveyed chicken livers from various sources for the presence and levels of Salmonella . The pathogen was recovered from 148 (59.4%) of 249 chicken livers purchased at retail stores in Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania over about a 9-month period. Positive samples harbored Salmonella at levels of 6.4 most probable number (MPN)/g to 2.4 log CFU/g. The percentage of Salmonella -positive livers purchased at retail outlets in New Jersey (72%, 59 of 82 livers) was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) than the percentage for livers purchased in Delaware (48%, 36 of 75 livers); however, this percentage was not significantly different ( P > 0...
April 22, 2019: Journal of Food Protection
Mahta Moussavi, Vanessa Lieberman, Chris Theofel, Javad Barouei, Linda J Harris
During harvest, pistachios are hulled, separated in water into floater and sinker streams (in large part on the basis of nut density), and then dried before storage. Higher prevalence and levels of Salmonella were previously observed in floater pistachios, but contributing factors are unclear. To examine the behavior of pathogens on hulled pistachios during simulated drying delays, floater and sinker pistachios collected from commercial processors were inoculated at 1 or 3 log CFU/g with cocktails of Salmonella and in some cases Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Listeria monocytogenes and incubated for up to 30 h at 37°C and 90% relative humidity...
April 17, 2019: Journal of Food Protection
Yadolah Fakhri, Raheb Ghorbani, Mahmoud Taghavi, Hassan Keramati, Nazak Amanidaz, Bigard Moradi, Simin Hagh Nazari, Nabi Shariatifar, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah
This meta-analysis was designed to review the published reports regarding the concentration and/or prevalence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) in human breast milk in Iran. The carcinogenic risk for Iranian infants consuming this milk was estimated with the hazard index. The PubMed and Scopus databases and the Scientific Information Database were screened for relevant studies between 1995 and 2017, and 11 of the 112 collected studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The mean (95% confidence interval) concentration of AFM1 was 5...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Food Protection
Dong-Kyu Jeong, Hwan-Jun Lee, Ji-Yeon Bae, Yu-Sin Jang, Su-Myeong Hong, Jin-Hyo Kim
The use of the pesticide chlorfenapyr has been increasing over time, with a consequent wider application to crops. However, there is limited information available on the amount and safety of the residues it leaves on crops. The amount of chlorfenapyr residues in sweet persimmon ( Diospyros kaki L.) at both the pre- and postharvest stages were investigated in this study by calculating its biological half-life. The half-life at the preharvest stage was 8.8 days, shorter than that found during the storage periods at 4 and 20°C, when the half-lives were 11...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Food Protection
Joseph M Bosilevac, Samson Zhilyaev, Rong Wang, Brandon E Luedtke, Tommy L Wheeler, Mohammad Koohmaraie
Beef and veal products have been vehicles implicated in the transmission of Salmonella enterica, a gastroenteritis-causing bacteria. Recent regulatory samples collected from veal have indicated bob veal, or calves harvested within days of birth, have higher rates of Salmonella than samples collected from formula-fed veal, or calves raised 20 weeks on milk replacer formula before harvest. To investigate this problem, we collected samples from veal calf hides, preevisceration carcasses, and final carcasses at five veal processors that harvested bob or formula-fed veal or both...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Food Protection
Marilyn C Erickson, Jye-Yin Liao
During the early stages of aerobic composting, heat is generated and when the materials are self-insulating, extended exposure of pathogens to this heat source will lead to significant reduction, if not elimination, of the pathogens. However, when insufficient heat is applied to the composting materials, pathogens may survive. Under those conditions if the compost had contained material of animal origin or food waste, it would be considered untreated and would not be allowed in fields growing crops that may be consumed raw...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Food Protection
R Putthang, P Sirisomboon, C Dachoupakan Sirisomboon
The objective of this research was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy, with a short-wavelength range of 950 to 1,650 nm, for the rapid detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) contamination in polished rice samples. Spectra were obtained by reflection mode for 105 rice samples: 90 samples naturally contaminated with AFB1 and 15 samples artificially contaminated with AFB1 . Quantitative calibration models to detect AFB1 were developed using the original and pretreated absorbance spectra in conjunction with partial least squares regression with prediction testing and full cross-validation...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Food Protection
Kilbo Shim, Yeongyeom Jeong
We analyzed the volatile basic nitrogen content, pH, total viable cell count, and biogenic amine contents in chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) stored at 5 and 25°C to examine changes in freshness. Among the various parameters, we found the volatile basic nitrogen content had the highest correlation with cadaverine content ( r2 = 0.72 to 0.88). We also tried to measure cadaverine contents at different times during storage by using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. However, because of the high water content in the fish, we could not obtain meaningful results...
April 12, 2019: Journal of Food Protection
John E Moore, Robert H Madden
Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus cerevisiae was evaluated as a natural method of preservation for use in pork liver paté. Addition of both starter strains to a raw meat mix (108 CFU g-1 ) lowered the pH to 4.0 in 15 h at 30°C. Subsequent cooking to a core temperature of 70°C followed by vacuum packaging resulted in a product which remained acceptable for longer than 22 days when stored at 4°C and 10°C. Addition of glucose did not increase the activity of the lactic acid starter organisms, indicating the presence of endogenous fermentable substrate in the raw ingredients...
July 1997: Journal of Food Protection
Robert D Byrne, J Russell Bishop
The Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Assay, Direct Epifluorescent Filter Technique and modified Psychrotrophic Bacteria Count were used to indicate potential shelf-life of pasteurized fluid milk. Commercial whole milk samples, stored at 7°C, were analyzed for bacterial and biochemical parameters, as well as for potential shelf-life by daily sensory evaluation. Each sample was evaluated before and after the following preliminary incubations: milk alone, milk with benzalkonium chloride, milk and broth, and milk and broth with benzalkonium chloride...
February 1990: Journal of Food Protection
Ana M S de Guzmán, Blas Micalizzi, Carlos E Torres Pagano, Domingo F Giménez
A simple iron-milk medium was used for the isolation and enumeration (MPN) if Clostridium perfringens from fresh sausages. Samples were diluted (log 10) in 0.1% peptone water, aliquots seeded and incubated at 45°C for 16-18 h, and cultures with clots and stormy fermentation were considered positive. Confirmation of C. perfringens was made by subculturing in tryptose-sulfite-neomycin agar under anaerobic conditions. Suspect colonies were identified by standard procedures, including nitrate reduction, gelatin liquefaction, lipase and lecithinase production, starch hydrolysis, hemolysis and reverse CAMP test...
February 1990: Journal of Food Protection
R G Earnshaw, J G Banks, C Francotte, Dominique Defrise
A glucose/glucose oxidase activated lactoperoxidase system (LP-S) delayed the onset of exponential growth of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli in infant formula milk. Addition of urea peroxide with the LP-S reduced the initial population size and prevented growth of S. typhimurium and extended the lag period before the onset of exponential growth of E.coli .
February 1990: Journal of Food Protection
David A Baker, Constantin Genigeorgis
The toxigenesis of non-proteolytic C. botulinum , types B, E, and F, in a variety of fresh fish stored between 4 and 30°C for up to 60 days was evaluated in a five year study. Muscle homogenates and fillets were inoculated with 104 -10-2 spores from multiple strain pools, then modified atmosphere (MA) packaged under vacuum, 100% CO2 , or 70% CO2 and 30% N2 . Our conclusions are based on all data generated in 927 experiments comprising 18,700 samples. The earliest lag times (LT), i.e. sampling period prior to observation of toxicity, among all experiments conducted at 30, 20, 16, 12, 8, and 4°C, were 0...
February 1990: Journal of Food Protection
Stjepan Matic, Vlado Mihokovic, Branka Katusin-Razem, Dusan Razem
The contamination of whole egg powder with salmonellae was investigated in suspected samples. They were found to contain between 0.1 and 0.01 CFU/g of S. lille , S. enteritidis , and S. typhimurium . The radiation resistance of these strains was investigated in artificially inoculated whole egg powder. The decimal reduction dose (D10 ) 0.8 kGy was obtained for a mixture of the three strains. A reduction factor of 103 can therefore be accomplished by irradiation with 2.4 kGy. While this may be adequate in many cases, higher reduction factors may also be desirable...
February 1990: Journal of Food Protection
Charlie J Barnes, Charles G Guyer, Jarosiav N Geleta, Jean E Matusik, John D Weber, Lesley R Frank, Gerald L Morris
The Code of Federal Regulations provides for the use of sulfamethazine (SM) boluses in cattle, a tolerance of 0.1 ppm for SM in meat, and a 10-day withdrawal. Bob veal, fancy veal, and replacement calves were dosed with SM as provided in the regulations and the rate of depletion of SM and, where practicable, N4 -acetylsulfamethazine and desaminosulfamethazine were measured in liver, kidney, and diaphragm muscle by gas chromatography. SM concentrations reached lower maximum levels and depleted faster in the tissues of replacement calves than in bob veal and fancy veal calves...
February 1990: Journal of Food Protection
D L Boyle, J N Sofos, G R Schmidt
Cells of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A were artificially inoculated (26-378 CFU/ml) in waste fluids collected from a lamb slaughtering operation, and their growth was determined at 8 and 35°C. Samples tested included residual fluid from carcass rinsing (after hide and offal removal); a mixture of waste fluids from the floor (collected during the entire slaughtering and washing process); and a standard floor drain sample (drawn from the floor drain 5 min after clean-up was complete). Growth of L. monocytogenes within 24 h of incubation of the various waste fluids was more rapid at 35 (1-4 logs) than at 8°C (0...
February 1990: Journal of Food Protection
P L Harris, S L Cuppett, L B Bullerman
Three different agar diffusion screening methods, employing two growth media, standard plate count agar (SPCA) and 1% peptone enriched trypticase soy agar (TSA), were used to isolate psychrotrophic bacteria from raw milk which produce lipase. Clarified butterfat and nile blue sulfate served as the substrate and dye, respectively, in all methods. Although a double-overlay method yielded slightly greater numbers of lipolytic bacteria than a single-layered method with comparable media, better visual clarity was achieved with the single-layered method...
February 1990: Journal of Food Protection
Bruce E Langlois, Abdul Karim Parlindungan, Robert J Harmon, Katherine Akers
Thirty-three biochemical characteristics were compared for 855 staphylococci isolated from human (93) and bovine sources (762). Differences in the predominant Staphylococcus species present and biochemical characteristics of species were observed for isolates from bovine milk and human clinical sources as well as between milk isolates obtained during the 1960s and 1980s from the same herd. All isolates were bacitracin-resistant and 98% were lysostaphin-sensitive. Approximately 31% of S. hyicus strains were coagulase-positive...
February 1990: Journal of Food Protection
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