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Triplane fractures of the distal tibial epiphysis.

Triplane distal tibial fractures can occur as two-, three-, or four-part fractures with or without a fibular fracture. Diagnosis of the particular anatomy of each fracture is ascertained by plain radiographs; if the fracture is displaced 2 mm or more on any view, anteroposterior and lateral tomograms and, if possible, a limited computerized tomography (CT) scan should be done. A plaster cast in situ for non-displaced fractures or closed reduction for displaced fractures should be attempted first by internal rotation and anterior movement of the fibular metaphyseal piece. Failure to obtain and/or maintain an adequate closed reduction (less than 2 mm displacement), determined by plain radiographs, is an indication for operative treatment. Operative treatment consists of screw fixation for the metaphyseal fragment alone in two-part fractures and both metaphyseal and epiphyseal screw fixation in three-part fractures. Associated fibular fractures may also require internal fixation. The prognosis is generally good if adequate reduction has been achieved by closed or open means.

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