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Bioelectrical Impedance Phase Angle and Its Determinants in Patients with Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

BACKGROUND: Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CAH21OHD) have increased fat mass and metabolic alterations. The bioelectrical impedance phase angle (PhA) is an indicator of cellular integrity in several diseases. This study aimed to determine the influence of adiposity levels, sex, CAH21OHD, pubertal development, body composition, and treatment on the PhA of patients with CAH21OHD.

METHODS: Forty girls and 30 boys with CAH21OHD aged 15.3 ± 5.8 years were evaluated. Sexual maturation was assessed by a pediatrician. The PhA was assessed using bioelectrical impedance, percentage of fat mass (% FM), and lean soft tissue (LST) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Adiposity levels were compared using % FM tertiles and body mass index (BMI). Glucocorticoid dosage was converted using hydrocortisone dose equivalent (HDE).

RESULTS: No differences were found in the PhA values among the clinical form ( p  = 0.103), BMI ( p  = 0.498), and % FM ( p  = 0.654) groups. High PhA values were observed in boys ( p  = 0.011) and postpubertal ( p  < 0.001) patients. LST, HDE, and height in girls (r2 = 0.68, p  < 0.001) and age, HDE, and FM in boys (r2 = 0.82, p  < 0.001) determined the PhA variations. BMI explained 14% ( p  = 0.032) of the PhA variations, whereas LST, height, HDE, and FM (kg) explained 66% ( p  < 0.001) in the prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal groups, respectively.

CONCLUSION: LST determined the PhA variations in girls and the postpubertal group. Age and BMI were determinants in boys and the pre- and pubertal groups, respectively.

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