journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38747482/endoscopic-lung-volume-reduction-with-endobronchial-valves-for-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-coming-of-age-in-australia
#1
EDITORIAL
Francis Ratnakumar, Paul Lilburn, Alvin Ing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38717051/probiotics-are-they-beneficial
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sasha R Fehily, Chamara Basnayake, Emily K Wright, C K Yao, Jack Godsell, Peter R Gibson, Michael A Kamm
There are wide-ranging probiotic choices in Australasia. We reviewed the efficacy of probiotics for the management of gastrointestinal (GI) conditions in adults and assessed relevance to clinical practice. The benefits of probiotics were inconsistent, with a strong consensus reached for only a few of the indications. As different species/strains and combinations differ in efficacy, results cannot be extrapolated from one to another. This review endorses specific probiotics for limited indications. Efficacy of most marketed probiotic formulations remains unstudied and unproven, warranting further research...
May 8, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38715436/the-new-paradigm-in-machine-learning-foundation-models-large-language-models-and-beyond-a-primer-for-physicians
#3
REVIEW
Ian A Scott, Guido Zuccon
Foundation machine learning models are deep learning models capable of performing many different tasks using different data modalities such as text, audio, images and video. They represent a major shift from traditional task-specific machine learning prediction models. Large language models (LLM), brought to wide public prominence in the form of ChatGPT, are text-based foundational models that have the potential to transform medicine by enabling automation of a range of tasks, including writing discharge summaries, answering patients questions and assisting in clinical decision-making...
May 7, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38682385/challenges-for-trainee-physician-scientists-during-their-phd-candidature-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Arthur Richard Kitching, Peter Robert Ebeling
BACKGROUND: Physician-scientists are important drivers of research, in both knowledge acquisition and research translation. In Australia, many newly qualified physicians and advanced physician trainees enrol in PhD studies, with a view to training as physician-scientists. However, data on perceived challenges and ways to support them are limited. METHODS: This single-centre study surveyed trainee physician-scientists undertaking PhD studies within the Monash University Department of Medicine in 2020...
April 29, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38666599/clinical-outcomes-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-surveillance-in-melbourne-australia
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Samuel Hui, Andrew Nguyen, Suong Le, Anouk Dev, Sally Bell
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may improve early tumour detection but may additionally result in surveillance-related harm through increased evaluation of non-HCC lesions. The incidence of these outcomes has not been reported outside North America. AIMS: We aimed to report the outcomes of HCC surveillance with respect to both surveillance-related benefits and harms. METHODS: We reviewed all HCC surveillance ultrasounds at a large Victorian tertiary hospital network in 2017 and followed their outcomes until 2021...
April 26, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38665051/autosomal-dominant-hypercalciuric-hypocalcaemia-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-renal-calcium-homeostasis-and-the-impact-of-renal-transplantation
#6
REVIEW
James A Florance, John B W Schollum, Abigail Pomeranc, Zoltan H Endre, Robert J Walker
Calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) are G protein-coupled receptors that help maintain Ca2+ concentrations, modulating calciotropic hormone release (parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) by direct actions in the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract and bone. Variability in population calcium levels has been attributed to single nucleotide polymorphisms in CaSR genes, and several conditions affecting calcium and phosphate homeostasis have been attributed to gain- or loss-of-function mutations...
April 25, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38660891/a-retrospective-review-of-the-short-synacthen-test-in-queensland-hospitals
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Elizabeth Wootton, Quynh Truong, Carel J Pretorius, Matthew Balcerek, Syndia Lazarus
BACKGROUND: The short Synacthen test (SST) is widely used to investigate adrenal insufficiency, but it can be time-consuming, costly and labour-intensive to perform and is not without risk of adverse events. AIM: To review SST requesting patterns and practices across public hospitals in Queensland. METHODS: The electronic medical records of patients who underwent a SST with Pathology Queensland between January 2020 and December 2020 were reviewed to collect data regarding the indication for the test, the requesting speciality, SST results and any adverse events...
April 25, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38655740/-person-centred-care-an-overhyped-clich%C3%A3-or-a-practicable-health-delivery-model
#8
EDITORIAL
Isaac K S Ng, Wilson G W Goh, Norman H Y Lin, Desmond B Teo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38654636/clinician-attitudes-to-voluntary-assisted-dying-what-do-surveys-tell-us
#9
EDITORIAL
Paul A Komesaroff, Jennifer Philip
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38654627/indications-and-outcomes-of-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt-insertion-in-two-regional-australian-hepatology-centres
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Natalie Commins, Deloshaan Subhaharan, Rajiv Kurup, Tehara Wickremeratne, Jonathan Mitchell, Julie Elmes, Alicia Braund, Natalie Funakoshi, Jonathan Langton, Paul Leschke, James O'Beirne
BACKGROUND: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an important therapy for complications of portal hypertension but remains underutilised in regional settings. AIMS: The aim of this study is to explore the demographics, indications, outcomes and complications in patients undergoing TIPS in two regional hepatology centres. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was undertaken of all patients undergoing TIPS at two regional centres between January 2017 and March 2023...
April 23, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38654576/gout-and-its-management
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nicola Dalbeth, Leanne Te Karu, Lisa K Stamp
Gout is a common and treatable chronic disease of monosodium urate crystal deposition. It is experienced as extremely painful episodes of joint inflammation that impact all aspects of the person's life. This Clinical Perspectives article provides an update on gout diagnosis, medications and strategies to improve the quality of gout care.
April 23, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38651497/mpox-vaccination-routes-prevalence-correlates-and-adverse-effects-of-subcutaneous-versus-intradermal-vaccination-at-a-mass-vaccination-clinic-in-sydney-australia
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Alisa Pollack, Winston Lo, Hanaho Imamura, Ian Caterson
The Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Mpox Vaccination Clinic opened in response to the 2022 multicountry mpox outbreak. A total of 9500 vaccinations were administered intradermally and subcutaneously during the first 16 weeks of clinic operation. The rate of adverse events was 0.1%. Compared to people who received the vaccine intradermally, those who received it subcutaneously were more likely to be aged 30-39 years (P = 0.047), sexual partners of gay and bisexual men (P < 0.001), eligible for Medicare (P < 0...
April 23, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38622825/treatment-selection-and-real-world-analysis-of-immunotherapy-with-or-without-chemotherapy-in-pd-l1-high-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Samuel Smith, Steven Kao, Michael Boyer, Michael Franco, Melissa Moore
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in Australia. Immunotherapy has improved outcomes in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pembrolizumab is approved in first-line treatment as single-agent immunotherapy (SAI) or combination chemoimmunotherapy (CIT). In metastatic NSCLC programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) ≥50% either regimen may be used. AIMS: We aim to identify patient and tumour characteristics that influence treatment selection...
April 15, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38622806/oral-corticosteroid-stewardship-key-insights-from-the-australasian-severe-asthma-registry
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
John Politis, Li Ping Chung, Ezinne Igwe, Philip Bardin, Peter G Gibson
BACKGROUND: People with severe asthma remain at risk of toxicity from maintenance oral corticosteroid (OCS) use and/or frequent OCS burst therapy. Cumulative exposures above 500-1000 mg prednisolone are associated with adverse effects, and recently OCS stewardship principles were promulgated to guide OCS prescription. AIMS: To examine real-world registry data to quantify OCS burden, ascertain trends over time in prescription and assess whether opportunities to implement steroid-sparing strategies were utilised...
April 15, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38591847/home-nursing-and-self-administered-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-treatment-a-comparison-of-demographics-and-outcomes-from-a-large-regional-hospital-in-queensland-australia
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Holly Brand, Michael Fryer, Ahmed M Mehdi, Alex Melon, Bridie Morcombe, Keat Choong, Shradha Subedi
BACKGROUND: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial treatment (OPAT) is a safe and effective therapy used in several settings across Australia. As OPAT services expand their inclusion criteria to include complex patient populations, there is an increased need for selecting appropriate patients to receive either healthcare-administered OPAT (H-OPAT) or self-administered OPAT (S-OPAT). AIMS: To describe patient demographics, diagnosis, microbiology and outcomes of patients treated by H-OPAT and S-OPAT within the Sunshine Coast Hospital and Health Service, Australia...
April 9, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38584572/epidemiology-and-clinical-significance-of-carbapenemases-in-australia-a-narrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Abdullah Tarik Aslan, David L Paterson
Carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacteria (CP-GNB) infections threaten public health with high mortality, morbidity and treatment costs. Although frequencies remain low in Australia (total number of CP-GNB infections reported was 907 in 2022), blaIMP-4 has established low levels of endemicity in many states. Imipenemase metallo-β-lactamase types alone accounted for more than half of all carbapenemases in carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales isolates in Australia, particularly in Enterobacter cloacae complex...
April 8, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38578058/glycaemic-outcomes-in-hospital-with-idegasp-versus-biasp30-premixed-insulins
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Joshua R Walt, Julie Loughran, Spiros Fourlanos, Rahul D Barmanray, Jasmine Zhu, Suresh Varadarajan, Mervyn Kyi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: IDegAsp (Ryzodeg 70/30), a unique premixed formulation of long-acting insulin degludec and rapid-acting insulin aspart, is increasing in use. Management of IDegAsp during hospitalisation is challenging because of degludec's ultra-long duration of action. We investigated inpatient glycaemia in patients treated with IDegAsp compared to biphasic insulin aspart (BIAsp30; Novomix30). METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study at two hospitals assessing inpatients with type 2 diabetes treated with IDegAsp or BIAsp30 prior to and during hospital admission...
April 5, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38578038/implementation-of-reimbursement-for-genomic-testing-in-australia-early-successes-and-the-pathway-ahead
#18
EDITORIAL
Andrew J Mallett, Jodie Ingles, Ilias Goranitis, Zornitza Stark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38573020/service-use-and-glycaemic-control-of-young-people-with-type-1-diabetes-transitioning-from-paediatric-to-adult-care-a-5-year-study
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lin Perry, Janet Dunbabin, Xiaoyue Xu, Steven James, Julia Lowe, Shamasunder Acharya, Katharine S Steinbeck
BACKGROUND: Regular contact with specialist care has been linked to better diabetes outcomes for young people with type 1 diabetes (YPwT1D), but evidence is limited to population-based service usage and outcomes. AIMS: This observational 5-year study sought to capture YPwT1D living in the study catchment area (covering metropolitan, regional and rural Australia) as they transitioned to adult-based diabetes healthcare services and to describe their glycaemic control and complication rates, service usage and associated factors...
April 4, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38572793/the-paradox-of-platypnoea-orthodeoxia-syndrome
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Benjamin A Leaver, Edward R S Cliff, Michael Jefford, Samuel Fogarty, Dominica Zentner
Platypnoea-orthodeoxia is a rare clinical syndrome characterised by dyspnoea and oxygen desaturation in the upright position which improves when supine. It requires two components: a sufficiently sized anatomical vascular defect (typically intra-cardiac or intra-pulmonary) combined with a functional component that promotes positional right-to-left shunting. We describe the rare occurrence of a patient with platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) because of a paradoxical shunt through a patent foramen ovale caused by a large right atrial line-associated thrombus in a male with metastatic oesophageal cancer undergoing chemotherapy...
April 4, 2024: Internal Medicine Journal
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