Factors influencing the sinus membrane thickness in edentulous regions: a cone-beam computed tomography study

Motohiro Munakata, Kikue Yamaguchi, Daisuke Sato, Naoko Yajima, Noriko Tachikawa
International Journal of Implant Dentistry 2021 March 2, 7 (1): 16

BACKGROUND: During implant treatment in the maxillary molar area, maxillary sinus floor augmentation is often performed to ameliorate the reduced alveolar bone height attributable to bone remodeling and pneumatization-induced expansion of the maxillary sinus. However, this augmentation may cause complications such as misplaced implants, artery damage, and maxillary sinus mucosal perforation; infections like maxillary sinusitis; and postsurgical complications such as bone graft leakage and postoperative nasal hemorrhaging. To reduce the complications during maxillary sinus floor augmentation and postoperative infections, we performed retrospective investigations of various systemic and local factors that influence pre-operative sinus mucosal thickness (SMT) by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Subjects included patients who underwent maxillary sinus floor augmentation in an edentulous maxillary molar area with a lateral approach. Pre-operative SMT, existing bone mass, and nasal septum deviation were measured using CBCT images. Relationships between SMT and the following influencing factors were investigated: (1) age, (2) sex, (3) systemic disease, (4) smoking, (5) period after tooth extraction, (6) reason for tooth extraction, (7) residual alveolar bone height (RBH), (8) sinus septa, and (9) nasal septum deviation. Correlations were also investigated for age and RBH (p < 0.05).

RESULTS: We assessed 35 patients (40 sinuses; 11 male, 24 female). The average patient age was 58.90 ± 9.0 years (males, 57.9 ± 7.7 years; females, 59.9 ± 9.4 years; age range, 41-79 years). The average SMT was 1.09 ± 1.30 mm, incidence of SMT > 2 mm was 25.0%, incidence of SMT < 0.8 mm was 50.0%, and the average RBH was 2.14 ± 1.02 mm. The factors that influenced SMT included sex (p = 0.0078), period after tooth extraction (p = 0.0075), reason for tooth extraction (p = 0.020), sinus septa (p = 0.0076), and nasal septum deviation (p = 0.038).

CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated with higher SMT included male sex, interval following tooth extraction < 6 months, periapical lesions, sinus septa, and nasal septum deviation. Factors associated with SMT > 2 mm were sex and reason for tooth extraction, while factors associated with SMT < 0.8 mm were time following tooth extraction and nasal septum deviation. Despite the limitations of this study, these preoperative evaluations may be of utmost importance for safely conducting maxillary sinus floor augmentation.

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