Jolene Carlson, Melina Fischer, Laura Zani, Michael Eschbaumer, Walter Fuchs, Thomas Mettenleiter, Martin Beer, Sandra Blome
Understanding African swine fever virus (ASFV) transmission is essential for strategies to minimize virus spread during an outbreak. ASFV can survive for extended time periods in animal products, carcasses, and the environment. While the ASFV genome was found in environments around infected farms, data on the virus survival in soil are scarce. We investigated different soil matrices spiked with ASFV-positive blood from infected wild boar to see if ASFV can remain infectious in the soil beneath infected carcasses...
November 23, 2020: Pathogens
Nicolai Denzin, Frithjof Helmstädt, Carolina Probst, Franz J Conraths
African swine fever (ASF) is a viral infection of pigs and represents a major threat to animal health and trade. Due to the high tenacity of the causative virus in carcasses of wild boar, contacts of wild boar with infectious carcasses are regarded an important driver of the so-called habitat cycle. The latter is believed to play a major role in maintaining the present ASF situation in wild boar in Europe. Therefore, search campaigns and timely removal and disposal of carcasses are considered important disease control approaches...
November 19, 2020: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Peter van Tulden, Jose L Gonzales, Michiel Kroese, Marc Engelsma, Frido de Zwart, Dorota Szot, Yvette Bisselink, Marga van Setten, Miriam Koene, Peter Willemsen, Hendrik-Jan Roest, Joke van der Giessen
In Europe, wild boar populations pose an increasing risk for livestock and humans due to the transmission of animal and zoonotic infectious diseases, such as African swine fever and brucellosis. Brucella suis is widespread among wild boar in many European countries. In The Netherlands the prevalence of B. suis among wild boar has not been investigated so far, despite the high number of pig farms and the growing wild boar population. The Netherlands has a Brucella -free status for the livestock species. The objective of this study is to investigate the presence and distribution of B...
October 26, 2020: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Alessandro Lapenna, Alessandra Stefan, Alejandro Hochkoeppler
The DNA polymerase from african swine fever virus (ASFV Pol X), lacking both 8 kDa and thumb domains, is the smallest enzyme featuring competence in DNA extension. Here we show that ASFV Pol X features poor filling activity of DNA gaps consisting of 15 bases, and exerts a more efficient action at the expense of DNA substrates containing a recessed end of equal length. We also show that shortening the recessed end of DNA substrates decreases the rate of DNA elongation catalysed by ASFV Pol X. Finally, by means of stopped-flow experiments we were able to determine that DNA binding is a step responsible for restraining the efficiency of ASFV Pol X catalytic action...
November 19, 2020: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yuan-Shou Zhu, Ning Shao, Jian-Wei Chen, Wen-Bao Qi, Yang Li, Peng Liu, Yan-Jing Chen, Su-Ying Bian, Yan Zhang, Sheng-Ce Tao
African swine fever is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), and has a mortality rate approaching 100%. It has already caused tremendous economy lost around the world. Without effective vaccine, rapid and accurate on-site detection plays an indispensable role in controlling outbreaks. Herein, by combining Hive-Chip and direct loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), we establish a multiplex and visual detection platform. LAMP primers targeting five ASFV genes (B646L, B962L, C717R, D1133L, and G1340L) were designed and pre-fixed in Hive-Chip...
December 15, 2020: Analytica Chimica Acta
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November 16, 2020: Viruses
Zongjie Li, Jianchao Wei, Di Di, Xin Wang, Chenxi Li, Beibei Li, Yafeng Qiu, Ke Liu, Feng Gu, Minglong Tong, Shuiming Wang, Xiaodong Wu, Zhiyong Ma
The first case of African swine fever (ASF) outbreak in China was reported in a suburban pig farm in Shenyang in 2018. Since then, the rapid spread and extension of ASF has become the most serious threat for the swine industry. Therefore, rapid and accurate detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) is essential to provide effective strategies to control the disease. In this study, we developed a rapid and accurate ASFV-detection method based on the DNA endonuclease-targeted CRISPR trans reporter (DETECTR) assay...
November 17, 2020: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Benjamin J Hershey, Jenna L Hagart, Karyn A Havas
African swine fever virus (ASFV), the causative agent of African Swine Fever (ASF), is an infectious disease of swine that is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in naive populations. ASFV is challenging to work with in vitro and the in vivo immune response remains an active area of study. Vaccine development, pathogenesis, and diagnostic assay development studies often require use of live swine housed in high-containment laboratories. Studies of this type are intended to obtain key data yet must minimize the pain and distress experienced by the animals...
November 16, 2020: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Zhihua Feng, Jianghua Chen, Wangwang Liang, Wenzhi Chen, Zhaolong Li, Qi Chen, Shaoli Cai
BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF) leads to high mortality in domestic pigs and wild boar and is caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV). Currently, no vaccine is commercially available for prevention, and the epidemic is still spreading. Here, we constructed a recombinant pseudorabies virus (PRV) (PRV-ΔgE/ΔgI/ΔTK-(CD2v)) that expresses the CD2v protein of ASFV and evaluated its effectiveness and safety as a vaccine candidate in mice. METHODS: A homologous recombination fragment containing ASFV CD2v was synthesized and co-transfected into HEK 293 T cells, a knockout vector targeting the PRV TK gene...
November 16, 2020: Virology Journal
Marta Martínez-Avilés, Irene Iglesias, Ana De La Torre
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00155.].
2020: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Huy Duc Dang, Giang Thanh Tran
Purpose . The aim of this paper is to explain a consumers' intention for traceable food in the context of the African Swine Fever (ASF) outbreak, in order to provide scientific knowledge for the government's intervention to mitigate the perceived risk and to promote the development of traceable food. Methodology . This research employed an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) model in predicting purchase intention/attitude toward traceable pork. The structural equation analysis (SEM) was used on a sample of 230 students in Vietnam...
2020: International Journal of Food Science
Vienna R Brown, Ryan S Miller, Sophie C McKee, Karina H Ernst, Nicole M Didero, Rachel M Maison, Meredith J Grady, Stephanie A Shwiff
African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are considered to be three of the most detrimental animal diseases and are currently foreign to the U.S. Emerging and re-emerging pathogens can have tremendous impacts in terms of livestock morbidity and mortality events, production losses, forced trade restrictions, and costs associated with treatment and control. The U.S. is the world's top producer of beef for domestic and export use and the world's third-largest producer and consumer of pork and pork products; it has also recently been either the world's largest or second largest exporter of pork and pork products...
November 11, 2020: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Zhenhua Guo, Kunpeng Li, Songlin Qiao, Xin-Xin Chen, Ruiguang Deng, Gaiping Zhang
BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF) is the most important disease to the pigs and cause serious economic losses to the countries with large-scale swine production. Vaccines are recognized as the most useful tool to prevent and control ASF virus (ASFV) infection. Currently, the MGF505 and MGF360 gene-deleted ASFVs or combined with CD2v deletion were confirmed to be the most promising vaccine candidates. Thus, it is essential to develop a diagnosis method to discriminate wide-type strain from the vaccines used...
November 9, 2020: BMC Veterinary Research
Shikandar D Bukkitgar, Nagaraj P Shetti, Tejraj M Aminabhavi
Virus-induced infection such as SARS-CoV-2 is a serious threat to human health and the economic setback of the world. Continued advances in the development of technologies are required before the viruses undergo mutation. The low concentration of viruses in environmental samples makes the detection extremely challenging; simple, accurate and rapid detection methods are in urgent need. Of all the analytical techniques, electrochemical methods have the established capabilities to address the issues. Particularly, the integration of nanotechnology would allow miniature devices to be made available at the point-of-care...
November 2, 2020: Chemical Engineering Journal
Manabu Yamada, Kentaro Masujin, Ken-Ichiro Kameyama, Reiko Yamazoe, Takashi Kubo, Kei Iwata, Aiko Tamura, Hiroyuki Hibi, Takayoshi Shiratori, Shunjiro Koizumi, Kousuke Ohashi, Mitsutaka Ikezawa, Takehiro Kokuho, Makoto Yamakawa
We experimentally infected pigs with the African swine fever virus (ASFV) Armenia 07 strain (genotype II) to analyze the effect of different dose injections on clinical manifestations, virus-shedding patterns, histopathology, and transmission dynamics by direct contact. Each three pigs and four pigs were injected intramuscularly with 0.1 50% hemadsorbing doses (HAD50 ) /ml, 101 HAD50 /ml and 106 HAD50 /ml of ASFV Armenia 07 strain, respectively. Each two of three pigs injected with 0.1 HAD50 /ml and 101 HAD50 /ml died by 10 days post inoculation...
November 6, 2020: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Juan Li, Lu Gao, Baoxu Huang, Youming Wang, Jin Zhen, Xiangdong Sun, Ping Liu, Quangang Xu, Huaiping Zhu
In this study, we introduce a vulnerability index to measure the regional ASF epidemic and present the ASF severity ratings of the 31 provinces of mainland China. The index is defined based on the data from the investigation, national statistical yearbook and reports. The data to be used includes pig breeding, financial resources, human resources, epidemic information of ASF and price fluctuation from the 31 provinces. Then we use the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method to define the vulnerability index, the relative severity values for each region which quantitatively reflect the damage degree caused by the epidemic of ASF...
November 6, 2020: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Yonlayong Woonwong, Duy Do Tien, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2020: Animal frontiers: the review magazine of animal agriculture
Hyun-Joo Kim, Ki-Hyun Cho, Ji-Hyoung Ryu, Min-Kyung Jang, Ha-Gyeong Chae, Ji-Da Choi, Jin-Ju Nah, Yong-Joo Kim, Hae-Eun Kang
On 17 September 2019, the first outbreak of African swine fever in a pig farm was confirmed in South Korea. By 9 October, 14 outbreaks of ASF in domestic pigs had been diagnosed in 4 cities/counties. We isolated viruses from all infected farms and performed genetic characterization. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all of fourteen ASFV isolates in South Korea belong to genotype II and serogroup 8. Additionally, all isolates had an intergenic region (IGR) II variant with additional tandem repeat sequences (TRSs) between the I73R and I329L genes and showed characteristics of central variable region (CVR) 1 of the B602L gene and IGR 1 of MGF 505 9R/10R genes...
October 30, 2020: Viruses
Yisha Zhuo, Zeheng Guo, Tongtong Ba, Cheng Zhang, Lihua He, Cuiping Zeng, Hanchuan Dai
African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious transboundary disease of domestic pigs and wild boar and spreading throughout Eurasia. There is no vaccine and treatment available. Complex immune escape strategies of African swine fever virus (ASFV) are crucial factors affecting immune prevention and vaccine development. MGF360 genes have been implicated in the modulation of the IFN-I response. The molecular mechanisms contributing to innate immunity are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that ASFV MGF360-12L (MGF360 families 12L protein) significantly inhibited the mRNA transcription and promoter activity of IFN-β and NF-κB, accompanied by decreases of IRF3, STING, TBK1, ISG54, ISG56 and AP-1 mRNA transcription...
November 3, 2020: Virologica Sinica
Rui Liang, Gang Wang, Ding Zhang, Gang Ye, Mengxia Li, Yuejun Shi, Jiale Shi, Huanchun Chen, Guiqing Peng
African swine fever, caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), is among the most significant swine diseases. There are currently no effective treatments against ASFV. ASFV contains a gene encoding a dUTPase (E165R), which is required for viral replication in swine macrophages, making it an attractive target for inhibitor development. However, the full structural details of the ASFV dUTPase and those of the comparable swine enzyme are not available, limiting further insights. Herein, we determine the crystal structures of ASFV dUTPase and swine dUTPase in both their ligand-free and ligand-bound forms...
November 2, 2020: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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