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pain neurophysiology

Jae-Yeon Lee, Soo-Hee Choi, Ki-Soon Park, Yoo Bin Choi, Hee Kyung Jung, Dasom Lee, Joon Hwan Jang, Jee Youn Moon, Do-Hyung Kang
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and fibromyalgia (FM) share many features. Both can cause severe pain and are considered to have a mechanism of action, including dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system. However, they have clinical differences in pain range and degree. The present study aimed to find neurophysiologic differences between CRPS and FM using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG). Thirty-eight patients with CRPS and 33 patients with FM were included in the analysis. Resting-state QEEG data were grouped into frontal, central, and posterior regions to analyze for regional differences...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ishanka Weerasekara, Peter Grant Osmotherly, Suzanne Jordan Snodgrass, John Tessier, Darren Anthony Rivett
BACKGROUND: Up to 40% of individuals who sprain their ankle develop chronic ankle instability (CAI). One treatment option for this debilitating condition is joint mobilisation. There is preliminary evidence that Mulligan's Mobilisation With Movement (MWM) is effective for treating patients with CAI, but the mechanisms by which it works are unclear, with Mulligan suggesting a repositioning of the fibula. This randomised controlled trial aims to determine the effects of MWM on anatomical and clinical characteristics of CAI...
February 13, 2019: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Miguel E Habeych, Pouria Moshayedi, Jon C Rittenberger, Scott R Gunn
A 34-year-old male was brought to the hospital with a chest gunshot wound. Pulseless upon arrival, blood pressure was absent for 10 minutes. A thoracotomy resulted in return of spontaneous circulation. On hospital day 5, with brainstem reflexes present, he was unresponsive to call or pain, exhibited generalized hyperreflexia and bilateral Babinskys. Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (mSSEPs) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were obtained. International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology recommendations for mSSEPs and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were followed...
February 12, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
Daniel P Hayne, Paul R Martin
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated a potential association between visual factors and symptoms related to migraine. It was predicted that photophobia and visual aura would be positively associated with interictal light sensitivity and visual headache triggers (flicker, glare, and eyestrain), and that these 2 visual symptoms would also be associated. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found independent neurophysiological associations between several visual factors and symptoms related to headache disorders...
February 8, 2019: Headache
Tracy Brandmeyer, Arnaud Delorme, Helané Wahbeh
Rising from its contemplative and spiritual traditions, the science of meditation has seen huge growth over the last 30 years. This chapter reviews the classifications, phenomenology, neural correlates, and mechanisms of meditation. Meditation classification types are still varied and largely subjective. Broader models to describe meditation practice along multidimensional parameters may improve classification in the future. Phenomenological studies are few but growing, highlighting the subjective experience and correlations to neurophysiology...
2019: Progress in Brain Research
Markus Kofler, A Arturo Leis, Josep Valls-Solé
Testing of exteroceptive electromyographic modulation of ongoing voluntary muscle activity is of increasing interest as a diagnostic tool in clinical neurophysiology. The cutaneous silent period (CSP) is a robust and reproducible nociceptive EMG suppression, mediated at the spinal level by small-diameter A-delta afferents. The techniques and physiological principles of CSP testing, which are a fundamental prerequisite for a valid and thoughtful clinical application, are reviewed separately in part 1 (Kofler et al...
January 18, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Fan Chen, Sascha Marx, Chaochao Zhang, Junguo Cao, Ying Yu, Dawei Chen
RATIONALE: Bronchogenic cysts refer to congenital anomalies derived from the primitive foregut. Spinal bronchogenic cysts are uncommon entities, and those occurring in the intramedullary sites are extremely rare. Bronchogenic cysts involving the foramen magnum region have only been described in 2 cases; however, intramedullary bronchogenic cysts with syringomyelia have not yet been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of pain in the posterior neck region and a 1-month history of numbness in the upper extremities...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Peter Rudge, Zane Jaunmuktane, Harpreet Hyare, Matthew Ellis, Martin Koltzenburg, John Collinge, Sebastian Brandner, Simon Mead
A common presentation of inherited prion disease is Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, typically presenting with gait ataxia and painful dysaesthesiae in the legs evolving over 2-5 years. The most frequent molecular genetic diagnosis is a P102L mutation of the prion protein gene (PRNP). There is no explanation for why this clinical syndrome is so distinct from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and biomarkers of the early stages of disease have not been developed. Here we aimed, first, at determining if quantitative neurophysiological assessments could predict clinical diagnosis or disability and monitor progression and, second, to determine the neuropathological basis of the initial clinical and neurophysiological findings...
January 28, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Victoria Choi, Deirdre Cobbin, Sean Walsh
Objective: Huang Fu Mi's Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing ( ZJJYJ ) is regarded as the earliest text (282 ce) on differential diagnosis and clinical acumoxa therapy in Chinese Medicine. Are contemporary manual acupuncture practices consistent with those reported in the ZJJYJ? The aim of this research was to investigate if modern manual acupuncture uses reported in research are consistent with classical practices reported in the ZJJYJ. Materials and Methods: A database search of human research studies from 1995 to 2016 was performed for all 270 acupoints for all 8 leg/body channels...
December 1, 2018: Medical Acupuncture
Wei-Ju Chang, Valentina Buscemi, Matthew B Liston, James H McAuley, Paul W Hodges, Siobhan M Schabrun
Sensorimotor cortical activity is altered in both the immediate acute, and chronic stages of musculoskeletal pain. However, these changes are opposite, with decreased cortical activity reported in experimentally-induced acute pain (lasting minutes to hours), and increased cortical activity in chronic, clinical pain (lasting>6 months). It is unknown whether sensorimotor cortical activity is altered in acute, clinical musculoskeletal pain (lasting<4 weeks). In 36 individuals with acute, non-specific, clinical low back pain (LBP) and 36 age- and sex-matched, pain-free controls, we investigated the processing of non-noxious afferent inputs using sensory evoked potentials (SEPs), as well as corticomotor excitability and organisation of the primary motor cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Aline Patrícia Brietzke, Luciana Conceição Antunes, Fabiana Carvalho, Jessica Elkifury, Assunta Gasparin, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches, Danton Pereira da Silva Junior, Jairo Alberto Dussán-Sarria, Andressa Souza, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres, Felipe Fregni, Wolnei Caumo Md
Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic widespread pain whose pathophysiological mechanism is related to central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction. Neuropathy of small nerve fibers has been implicated due to related pain descriptors, psychophysical pain, and neurophysiological testing, as well as skin biopsy studies. Nevertheless, this alteration alone has not been previously associated to the dysfunction in the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS) that is observed in FM. We hypothesize that they associated, thus, we conducted a cross-sectional exploratory study...
January 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Koh-Woon Kim, Kyungmo Park, Hi-Joon Park, Geon-Ho Jahng, Dae-Jean Jo, Jae-Heung Cho, Eun-Mo Song, Woo-Chul Shin, Ye-Ji Yoon, Soo-Jeon Kim, Seulgi Eun, Mi-Yeon Song
BACKGROUND: Sciatica is a relatively frequent illness that easily becomes a chronic and relapsing condition. Although numerous systematic reviews have analyzed various therapies for sciatica, the validity of their included studies is limited. Considering the limitations of conventional treatment options for sciatica, acupuncture is a possible option; however, evidence supporting its efficacy and mechanism in patients with sciatica is lacking. The aim of this proposed protocol is to investigate the effect and neurophysiological mechanism of acupuncture in patients with chronic sciatica...
January 16, 2019: Trials
Zakir Uddin, Arthur Woznowski-Vu, Daniel Flegg, Andrea Aternali, Rebekah Wickens, Timothy H Wideman
BACKGROUND: The Fear-Avoidance Model (FAM) is a leading theoretical paradigm for explaining persistent pain following musculoskeletal injury. The model suggests that as injuries heal, pain-related outcomes are increasingly determined by psychological, rather than physiological factors. Increasing literature, however, suggests that neurophysiological processes related to pain sensitivity also play an important role in chronicity. To date, there has been limited research that has specifically explored the role of pain sensitivity within the FAM...
January 16, 2019: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Xiangyu Fang, Xueru Xu, Xingwu Lin, Rongguo Liu
Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) on the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which produces remarkable analgesia through high-frequency electromagnetic energy, has become a main therapy for chronic neuropathic pain. The chronic neuropathic pain in patients is frequently accompanied by depression. However, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of the treatment of PRF on DRG for the neuropathic pain-induced depression remain unclear. This study was designed to explore the effect of PRF on DRG on the neuropathic pain-induced depression in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI)...
January 9, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Hela G Zouari, Abir Wahab, Sophie Ng Wing Tin, Damien Sène, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
We attempted to determine whether clinical features could differentiate painful small fibre neuropathy related to primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS-SFN) from idiopathic SFN (idio-SFN). Validated clinical questionnaires and neurophysiological investigation specific for pain and SFN assessment were performed in 25 patients with pSS-SFN and 25 patients with idio-SFN. Patients with idio-SFN had more frequent severe burning sensations and higher mean anxiety score and daily pain intensity compared to pSS-SFN patients...
January 12, 2019: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Gisela Sole, Aleksandra K Mącznik, Daniel Cury Ribeiro, Prasath Jayakaran, Craig A Wassinger
PURPOSE: To explore perceptions and initial outcomes of patients with rotator cuff-related pain to a pain education session. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten individuals with persistent rotator cuff-related pain (≥3 months duration) attended an individual pain education session. They completed patient-reported outcomes measures on a weekly basis, three weeks prior and three weeks following the session. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted three weeks following the pain education...
January 11, 2019: Disability and Rehabilitation
Himanshu Garg
Sleep plays a pivotal role in regulation and function of the central nervous system (CNS) and other physiological functions of the body such as regulation of body temperature, metabolism, catabolism, learning, and memory consolidation. Therefore, sleep is not a mere passive state, but it is a highly organized interaction of neural networks and neurotransmitters of the CNS which maintain active neurobehavioral state. However, in insomnia normal physiological function is disturbed which results in several comorbidities such as depression, cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, breathing difficulties, chronic pain, and gastrointestinal problems which affect the quality of life...
September 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Daniela Floridia, Francesco Cerra, Giuseppe Guzzo, Silvia Marino, Nunzio Muscarà, Francesco Corallo, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Chillura, Antonino Naro
Purpose: Brachial plexopathy can sometimes cause severe chronic pain. There are many possible treatments for such neuropathic pain, including neuromodulation. However, rigorous scientific evidence on the usefulness of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is still scarce. Here, we report the use of high-frequency (10 kHz) SCS (HFSCS) in a patient with brachial plexus injury (root avulsion). Objective: To assess the efficacy of HFSCS in root avulsion and to investigate the putative neurophysiological mechanisms of HFSCS...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Matthias Hubert Morgalla, Marcos Fortunato de Barros Filho, Bankim Subhash Chander, Surjo Raphael Soekadar, Marcos Tatagiba, Guilherme Lepski
OBJECTIVES: Dorsal root ganglion stimulation (DRGS) has been used successfully against localized neuropathic pain. Nevertheless, the effects of DRGS on pain processing, particularly at the cortical level, remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether positive responses to DRGS treatment would alter patients' laser-evoked potentials (LEP). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 12 adult patients with unilateral localized neuropathic pain in the lower limbs or inguinal region and followed them up for six months...
December 18, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Chiara Briani, Andrea Visentin, Marta Campagnolo, Alessandro Salvalaggio, Sergio Ferrari, Tiziana Cavallaro, Renzo Manara, Roberto Gasparotti, Francesco Piazza
The peripheral nervous system may be involved at any stage in the course of lymphoproliferative diseases. The different underlying mechanisms include neurotoxicity secondary to chemotherapy, direct nerve infiltration (neurolymphomatosis), infections, immune-mediated, paraneoplastic or metabolic processes and nutritional deficiencies. Accordingly, the clinical features are heterogeneous and depend on the localization of the damage (ganglia, roots, plexi, peripheral nerves) and on the involved structures (myelin, axon, cell body)...
December 16, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
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