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Moringa isothiocyanate-1 mitigates the damage of oxidative stress and apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy mice.

OBJECTIVE: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a prevalent cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide. Moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1) has shown potential for DN management, however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. This research intended to evaluate the impact and mechanism of MIC-1 on DN.

METHODS: Six C57BLKS/J-db/m mice served as controls. Eighteen C57BLKS/J-db/db mice were randomly separated into three groups: db/db, db/db + irbesartan (IBS), and db/db + MIC-1. Three weeks post-drug administration, the body weight and kidney weight of mice in each group were measured. Concurrently, serum creatinine (Scr), urine albumin, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb), oxidative stress-, and inflammatory-related factors were determined. Additionally, the pathological injury, apoptosis, apoptosis-related markers, NLRP3, and ASC levels in the kidney tissues were examined utilizing H&E, Masson, PAS, TUNEL staining, and Western blot.

RESULTS: MIC-1 decreased the body weight, kidney weight, the levels of Glu, Scr, and urine albumin in db/db mice. Moreover, MIC-1 significantly suppressed the levels of MDA, insulin, GHb, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, while increased the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPX in the serum of db/db mice. MIC-1 also mitigated the kidney tissue injury in db/db mice. Western blot assay showed that MIC-1 enhanced the Bcl-2 level and suppressed the Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 levels of the kidney tissues in db/db mice.

CONCLUSIONS: MIC-1 ameliorated the kidney injury in DN mice, and its mechanism may be associated with the suppression of renal cell apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses.

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