Histology and Histopathology

Tongyu Rui, Qianqian Li, Shunchen Song, Yaxuan Gao, Chengliang Luo
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most significant health care problems worldwide, causing disability and death especially among young individuals. Although a large range of agents and therapies have been proved beneficial to lesions post-TBI to some extent, effective treatments have not been translated to the clinic. As a newly discovered form of iron-dependent regulated cell death, ferroptosis has been implicated in TBI. In this review, we update the current state of knowledge related to second injuries post-TBI, including ferroptosis, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and so on, which often lead to chronic symptoms and long-term disability...
May 27, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Georgios Tsinias, Sofia Nikou, Nicholas Mastronikolis, Vasiliki Bravou, Helen Papadaki
OBJECTIVES: The Hippo signaling pathway plays a critical role in organ size control and tissue homeostasis and its perturbation is associated with tumorigenesis. YAP (Yes associated protein) and TAZ (transcriptional co-activator with PDZ- binding motif) are the major nuclear effectors of the Hippo pathway interacting with TEADs (TEA domain) and p73 transcriptional factors to regulate gene expression. Altered expression of the above proteins promotes tumor initiation, progression and metastasis in a variety of cancer types...
May 7, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Xueliang Liu, Hao Huang, Xuehan Li, Xiaomei Zheng, Chong Zhou, Bin Xue, Jimin He, Ye Zhang, Liang Liu
BACKGROUND: Glioma is one of the most lethal malignant tumors all over the world. The prognosis of patients with high‑grade glioma remains very poor. Therefore, it is urgent to find a novel strategy for the treatment of glioma. It has been reported that ADAMDEC1 could regulate the progression of multiple diseases, including cancers. However, the role of ADAMDEC1 during the tumorigenesis of glioma remains largely unknown. Methods, Gene expression of ADAMDEC1 in glioma tissues or in cells was detected by qRT-PCR...
May 6, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Maritza P Garrido, Nicole Bruneau, Margarita Vega, Alberto Selman, Julio C Tapia, Carmen Romero
Ovarian cancer is the first cause of death for gynecological malignances in developed countries and around 80% correspond to Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC). Overexpression of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and its high affinity receptor TRKA are involved in EOC progression, modulating several oncogenic processes such as angiogenesis by the increase of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). FSH receptors (FSH-R) are present in EOC, but their changes and contribution during EOC progression are still not thoroughly known...
May 5, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Wendi Wang, Guangjing Liu, Man Liu, Xiaobing Li
Long non-coding small nucleolar RNA host gene 7 (lncRNA SNHG7) was verified to act as an onco-gene in human cancers. Nevertheless, the role of SNHG7 in malignant melanoma remains elusive. The present study showed an increase of SNHG7 expression in malignant melanoma tissues and cell lines. Besides, SNHG7 knockdown inhibited proliferation and migration in malignant melanoma cells. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that SNHG7 functions as a molecular sponge for miR-9 in biological behavior of melanoma cells...
May 4, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Laura Maria Andrade Silva, Ricardo Hsieh, Silvia Vanessa Lourenço, Verônica Ottoni, Neusa Valente, Juliana Dumet Fernandes
INTRODUCTION: Hair follicles are produced in a cyclical manner and the machinery involved in the reproduction of these follicles is present since the fetal stage. Although extensive research has been done on the human hair follicle, very little is known about the importance of adhesion molecules in its development. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed here, the immunoexpression of beta-1 integrin, p-cadherin, e-cadherin, and beta-catenin in hair follicles from 26 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded skin samples from human embryos and fetus between 12-23 weeks of gestational age...
April 29, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Hang Zhou, Li-Ping Liu, Mei Fang, Yu-Mei Li, Yun-Wen Zheng
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak began in the city of Wuhan, whereupon it rapidly spread throughout China and subsequently across the world. Rapid transmission of COVID-19 has caused wide-spread panic. Many established medications have been used to treat the disease symptoms; however, no specific drugs or vaccines have been developed. Organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may serve as suitable infection models for ex vivo mimicking of the viral life cycle and drug screening...
April 27, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
L Díaz-Flores, R Gutiérrez, S Gayoso, M P García, M González-Gómez, L Díaz-Flores, R Sánchez, J L Carrasco, J F Madrid
Intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) is currently considered an important alternative and complementary form of sprouting angiogenesis (SA). Conversely, intussusceptive lymphangiogenesis (IL) is in an initial phase of study. We compare their morphofunctional characteristics, since many can be shared by both processes. To that end, the following aspects are considered: A) The concept of IA and IL as the mechanism by which blood and lymphatic vessels split, expand and remodel through transluminal pillar formations (hallmarks of intussusception)...
April 24, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Ryan Jaques, Sam Xu, Antonios Matsakas
The transmembrane oncoprotein HER2 is encoded by ERBB2 gene and overexpressed in around 20% of invasive breast cancers. It can be specifically targeted by Trastuzumab (Herceptin®), a humanised IgG1 antibody. Trastuzumab has been regarded as one of the most effective therapeutic drugs targeted to HER2 positive cancers. However, there are drawbacks, notably cardiotoxicity and resistance, which have raised awareness in clinical use. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of action is vital to establish improved therapeutic strategies...
April 23, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Yifan Fei, Weilan Shan, Xiaoqing Chen
Backgrond. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common oral malignancy. Previous studies indicated that the level of miR-503-5p was upregulated in OSCC tissues. However, the mechanism by which miR-503-5p regulates the proliferation and invasion of OSCC cells remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of miR-503-5p during the progression of OSCC. METHODS: The level of miR-503-5p in Tca8113 cells was detected using RT-qPCR assay. In addition, CCK-8, transwell assays and flow cytometry assays were conducted to detect cell viability, migration, invasion and apoptosis, respectively...
April 22, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Chen Gong, Kai Sun, Hui-Hua Xiong, Tal Sneh, Jing Zhang, Xiao Zhou, Peng Yan, Jian-Hua Wang
Backgroud. Osteosarcoma is a primary malignant tumor with a high tendency to form metastasis and poor prognosis. Consequently, finding effective early indicators of metastases is crucial for identifying and treating high-risk patients. CXCR4 and MMP-2 have been found to strongly correlate with invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors, including osteosarcoma. Materials and Methods. Our study evaluated CXCR4 in conjunction with MMP-2 as an important clinicopathological prognostic predictor for metastasis and overall survival of osteosarcoma...
April 21, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Xianguang Yang, Xuelin Chen, Cong Xia, Shuaihong Li, Lin Zhu, Cunshuan Xu
Gadd45α (growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alpha) is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful conditions that lead to growth arrest and treatment with agents that lead to DNA damage. Gadd45? is upregulated in liver cirrhosis (LC), hepatic cancer (HC), acute liver failure (AHF) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD). Here, we investigated the essential differences in the Gadd45α signaling pathway in these diseases at the transcriptional level. The results showed that 44, 46, 71 and 27 genes significant changes in these diseases, and the H-cluster showed that the expression of the Gadd45α signaling-related genes was significantly different in the four liver diseases...
April 16, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Gerald Schlaf, Daniela Bau, Nathalie Horstmann, Gary Sawers, Wolfgang Altermann
Transplant recipients who have undergone sensitizing events, such as pregnancy, blood transfusion or previous transplants, frequently develop antibodies directed against the highly polymorphous human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-molecules. These pre-formed, donor-specific antibodies (DSA) present a high risk of causing organ failure or even complete loss of the grafted organ as a consequence of antibody-mediated, hyper-acute or acute allograft rejection. In order to detect DSA, the so-called functional complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity assay (CDC-XM) was established about 50 years ago...
April 15, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Rongkui Zhang, Fuwei Li, Yuchong Wang, Ming Yao, Changliang Chi
BACKGROUND: miR-20b is a member of the miR-106a-363 gene cluster located in the mammalian X chromosome, the larger miR-17 family, and the miR-17-92 and miR-106b-25 gene clusters. Previous studies have indicated that miR-20b may function as oncogene or tumor suppressor in different types of cancers. The present study analyzed the association between miR-20b and clinicopathological characteristics of patients with prostate cancer. METHODS: A total of 127 pairs of prostate cancer tissue samples and adjacent prostate tissue samples were collected from April 2013 to March 2018...
April 14, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Christophe Van de Wiele, Mike Sathekge, Bart de Spiegeleer, Pieter Jan De Jonghe, Philip R Debruyne, Marleen Borms, Laurence Beels, Alex Maes
The use of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) binding agents, labelled with diagnostic and therapeutic radio-isotopes is opening the potential for a new era of personalized management of prostate carcinoma. A wide variety of immunohistochemistry studies have shown PSMA also to be upregulated on the endothelial cells of the neovasculature of a wide variety of other solid tumors where it may facilitate endothelial cell sprouting and invasion through its regulation of lytic proteases that have the ability to cleave the extracellular matrix...
April 13, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Lijun Yang, Hehua Zhao, Hong Cui
Neonatal hypoxic ischemia (HI) results in different extents of brain damage, and immature brain tissue is particularly sensitive to the stimulation of HI. Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) is a common and serious nervous system disease in neonates, for both full-term infants and preterm infants, and is one of the main causes of neonatal death. The surviving infants are often associated with cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and other sequelae, which severely affect quality of life. For term infants, hypoxia and ischemia mainly affect gray matter, whereas in preterm infants, the white matter...
March 13, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Mechthild Stoeckelhuber, Marco R Kesting, Denys J Loeffelbein, Christoph Schmitz, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff
Mucins as highly glycosylated proteins comprise multiple functions like protection, homeostasis, immune defense, cell signaling. Various epithelial tissues including glandular structures express different specific mucin types. We investigated labial salivary glands in infants for the occurrence of MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC7 by immunohistochemistry. MUC1 and MUC4 were detected in serous and ductal glandular cells, partially intensified at the apical plasma membrane. MUC3 was found in ductal glandular cells and in myoepithelial cells...
March 12, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Sebastián García, Virna Margarita Martín Giménez, Feres José Mocayar Marón, Russel J Reiter, Walter Manucha
Generally, the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are associated with advancing age, so they are usually diagnosed in late adulthood. A primary mechanism underlying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases is neuroinflammation. Based on this background, the concept of "neuroinflammaging" has emerged. In this deregulated neuroinflammatory process, a variety of immune cells participate, especially glial cells, proinflammatory cytokines, receptors, and subcellular organelles including mitochondria, which are mainly responsible for maintaining redox balance at the cellular level...
March 10, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Xiuying Liang, Yan Qi, Fan Dai, Jingya Gu, Wenjuan Yao
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) had long been considered to serve only structural, vessel-supporting purposes, but today PVAT is recognized to be an endocrine organ with important physiological and pathological effects. The expansion of PVAT in vascular homeostasis and vascular disease has attracted much interest. PVAT has been shown to release a wide spectrum of molecules, such as PVAT-derived relaxing factors (PVATRFs) and PVAT-derived contracting factors (PVATCFs). PVAT dysfunction may lead to obesity, atherosclerosis, and other cardiovascular diseases...
February 21, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
Tuomas Kaprio, Jaana Hagström, Leif C Andersson, Caj Haglund
CD63, a member of the tetraspanin family, is expressed in endosomes and enriched in exosomes. Tetraspanins participate in a variety of physiological processes, including cellular differentiation, cell-cell fusion, and cell migration. CD63 reportedly carries both protumorigenic and tumor suppressor properties, and appears to be upregulated in breast cancer, astrocytoma, and melanoma. Yet, the effect of CD63 on cancer prognosis remains unclear, and no previous reports examined it in colorectal cancer (CRC). Identifying novel biomarkers will allow us to better differentiate patients with an increased risk of recurrence and who might benefit from adjuvant therapy...
February 19, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
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