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Histology and Histopathology

Alicja Zientara, Michael Stephan, Stephan von Hörsten, Andreas Schmiedl
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation often leads to lung injury, in which pulmonary recruitment of neutrophils plays a pivotal role. Inflammatory processes are influenced by CD26/DPP4, highly expressed in lungs. Asthma induced CD26/DPP4 deficient (CD26/DPP4⁻) Fischer (F) 344 rats suffering from a transport block in the rER caused by a point mutation showed reduced pulmonary inflammation and reduced expression of immunomodulating surfactant proteins (SP). The degree of LPS induced lung injury in CD26/DPP4 deficient rats has not been investigated so far...
April 12, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Carla Loreto, Claudia Lombardo, Rosario Caltabiano, Vera Filetti, Ermanno Vitale, Danilo Seminara, Sergio Castorina, Concettina Fenga, Caterina Ledda, Venerando Rapisarda
To investigate the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, (MMP)-13, E-Cadherin and Ki-67 expressions in road pavers' skin chronically exposed to bitumen products in order to contribute to a better understanding of the earlier tissue alteration. Skin punch biopsies from 16 daily exposed workers and a control group were studied by immunohistochemistry. Morphometric and densitometric analyses were also conducted. Morphological specimen evaluation of skin of road pavers showed epidermal thinning, flattening and loss of intercellular junction with a decreased expression of E-cadherin confined to the basal skin layer, together with MMP-9 and MMP-13 overexpressions in all epidermis layers, vascular structures and adnexa...
April 11, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Ursula Doris, Sanjay Kharche, Maria Petkova, Balint Borbas, Sunil Jit R J Logantha, Olga Fedorenko, Michal Maczewski, Urszula Mackiewicz, Yu Zhang, Anwar Chahal, Alicia D'Souza, Andrew J Atkinson, Halina Dobrzynski, Joseph Yanni
Background- Functional properties of the sinoatrial node (SAN) are known to differ between sexes. Women have higher resting and intrinsic heart rates. Sex determines the risk of developing certain arrhythmias such as sick sinus syndrome, which occur more often in women. We believe that a major contributor to these differences is in gender specific ion channel expression. Methods- qPCR was used to compare ion channel gene expression in the SAN and right atrium (RA) between male and female rats. Histology, immunohistochemistry and signal intensity analysis were used to locate the sinus node and determine abundance of ion channels...
April 10, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Toshiaki Kataoka, Koji Okudela, Yu Nakashima, Hideaki Mitsui, Mai Matsumura, Shigeaki Umeda, Hiromasa Arai, Tomohisa Baba, Takehisa Suzuki, Chihiro Koike, Yoko Tateishi, Michihiko Tajiri, Tamiko Takemura, Takashi Ogura, Munetaka Masuda, Kenichi Ohashi
In order to clarify idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP)-associated lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), we herein focused on the expression profiles of mucin proteins, the most common cellular differentiation markers. The expression of the mucin (MUC) 1, MUC2, MUC3B, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6, MUC7, MUC9, and MUC21 proteins was examined immunohistochemically and their levels were semi-quantified in 80 IIP-associated LADCs and 106 non-IIP LADCs. LADCs were divided into low and high expressers based on thresholds obtained from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of each mucin protein...
April 9, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
K Misiakiewicz-Has, D Maciejewska, A Kolasa-Wołosiuk, A Pilutin, S Rzeszotek, A Wilk, D Szypulska-Koziarska, E Stachowska, A Łukomska, B Wiszniewska
Obesity and type-2 diabetes are often associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Soya isoflavones act as antidiabetic agents and protect against NAFLD. There are data suggesting that inulin may increase the plasma concentration and effect of soya isoflavones. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soya isoflavones, as opposed to the effect of soya isoflavones with inulin, on plasma lipid profile, liver morphology, and liver fatty acids in rats with induced type-2 diabetes mellitus...
April 8, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Anna Luiza Silva Almeida Vicente, Raquel Alves Bianchini, Ana Carolina Laus, Graziela Macedo, Rui Manuel Reis, Vinicius de Lima Vazquez
Melanin is produced by melanocytes and protects against DNA damage by ultraviolet light. Unfortunately, the melanin protein present in melanoma tumor cells is often co-purified during DNA extraction, and this contamination may inhibit subsequent PCR methods, which directly impacts research applications and the molecular diagnostic tests needed for targeted therapeutics. There are presently no described purification protocols that efficiently remove melanin from genomic DNA. In this study, we compare six different methods for melanin removal from genomic DNA: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, 1mg Chelex®-100, Chelex®-100 5%, centrifugation, OneStep™ PCR Inhibitor Removal Kit and centrifugation plus OneStep™ PCR Inhibitor Removal Kit...
April 5, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Mikhail Inyushin, Astrid Zayas-Santiago, Legier Rojas, Yuri Kucheryavykh, Lilia Kucheryavykh
Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides have been implicated in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and glaucoma and have been shown to be the key etiological factor in these dangerous health complications. On the other hand, it is well known that Aβ peptide can be generated from its precursor protein and massively released from the blood to nearby tissue upon the activation of platelets due to their involvement in innate immunity and inflammation processes. Here we review evidence about the development of AD and glaucoma neuronal damage showing their dependence on platelet count and activation...
April 4, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Juan José Cabrera-Galván, María Soledad Martínez-Martin, Daniel Déniz-García, Eduardo Araujo-Ruano, María Del Mar Travieso-Aja
The various forms of Alexander disease (AD) have been linked to heterozygous point mutations in the coding region of the HUMAN GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN (GFAP) gene. The aim of this study was to confirm and characterise an adult variant of AD based on the presence of Rosenthal fibres, which were identified at brain autopsy. We performed histological and immunohistochemical studies and mutation screening by cycle sequencing of exons 1, 4, 6, and 8. A heterozygous D128N GFAP mutation, previously described in three other cases of adult-onset AD (AOAD), was genetically confirmed...
April 3, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Juliana Knief, Pamela Lazar-Karsten, Ulrich Wellner, Richard Hummel, Christoph Thorns
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have commonly been associated with markedly improved prognosis in a variety of human cancers, including carcinomas of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Especially the presence of T-cells (cytotoxic as well as helper cells) seems to define a subgroup of patients with prolonged overall and event-free survival. The density of TILs was assessed via immunohistochemistry for CD8 and CD103 in a population of 228 adenocarcinomas of the esophagogastric junction. Density of CD8+ T-lymphocytes was inversely correlated with depth of tumor infiltration (p=0...
April 2, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Ondine Lucaciu, Dragos Apostu, Alexandru Mester, Radu Septimiu Campian, Dan Gheban, Richard J Miron
Absorbable atelo-collagen type 1 represents a new approach for guided bone regeneration with several reported advantages such as: osteoblast attachment, proliferation, mineralization potential, absorption of growth factors and inhibition of bacterial pathogen colonization. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, radiological (preoperative width, re-entry width, gain), Periotest measurements and histologic benefits of atelo-collagen-derived bovine bone grafts (ImploBone) in combination with an atelo-collagen type I barrier membrane (ImploSorb) for guided bone regeneration (GBR) of atrophic alveolar crest in thirteen patients...
April 1, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Shuhei Otsuki, Oscar Alvarez-Garcia, Martin K Lotz, Masashi Neo
The expression of heparan sulfate endosulfatases (Sulfs) was investigated in the intervertebral disc (IVD) to clarify their role in IVD homeostasis. Sulf-1 and -2 expression was elucidated in normal and degenerated human IVD. Age-related effects on Sulf expression, type II collagen levels, and structural changes were analyzed in IVDs of wild-type (WT) and Sulf-1 knockout (Sulf-1⁻/⁻) mice. The effect of recombinant Sulf-1 (100 ng/ml) and Sulf-1 knockdown on heparan sulfate proteoglycan and collagen expression in ATDC5 cells was examined...
March 29, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Salvatore Desantis, Maria Mastrodonato, Gianluca Accogli, Giacomo Rossi, Alberto Maria Crovace
Although the use of probiotics in human and animal medicine is growing, their mode of action remains poorly understood. This study examined the effects of a multi-strain probiotic (SLAB51™) on the morphology and carbohydrate composition of mucins secreted by goblet cells of intestinal crypts in growing-finishing pigs. Sections of duodenum, caecum and colon from pigs fed for 12 weeks with an orally administered control basal diet (No-Pro) or one with a probiotic blend (Pro) were processed for microscopic analysis and stained with (1) haematoxylin-eosin for structural and morphometrical investigation; (2) conventional histochemistry (periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian Blue pH 2...
March 27, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Umar Nishan, Rafaela Rosa-Ribeiro, Carlos Lenz Cesar, Hernandes F Carvalho
The high incidence of prostatic diseases, including malignant tumors, makes the understanding of prostate biology very important. Androgen deprivation, blockade by orchiectomy, or chemical castration causes prostate and tumor shrinkage. The gene networks involved in a cell type-specific fashion are rather unknown. This work was undertaken to identify genes with annotated function in transcription regulation that might define transitions in gene expression. A total of 15 potential regulatory genes were identified...
March 26, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Diletta Francesca Squarzanti, Tiziana Cena, Rita Sorrentino, Mario Migliario, Annalisa Chiocchetti, Lia Rimondini, Barbara Azzimonti, Guido Valente
AIMS: to evaluate OPN, MCM7, Ki-67, p53, Bcl-2 and 53BP1 presence, together with the abnormal adaptive CD4 and CD8 T-cell response markers expression in a series of oral lichen planus (OLP) affected patients and assess their combined contribution for a more objective disease classification. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this ex-vivo retrospective analysis, biopsy specimens from 28 adults with a clinical diagnosis of OLP at different progression degree (16 reticular, 2 plaque-like, 1 erosive and 9 mixed type) were collected...
March 25, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Wen-Ji Jia, Yun Yuan, Chun-Yun Wu
Cerebral ischemia affects many especially with the ageing population. The ensuing ischemic reactions include oxidative stress, inflammation, and excitotoxicity among others. In the search for effective therapeutic strategies for cerebral ischemia, activated microglia which are the key player in neuroinflammation are now recognized as a potential therapeutic target. Microglia possess both neurotoxic and neuroprotective roles. They are protective by continuously surveilling the microenvironment, phagocytosing dead cells, secreting trophic factors and sculpting the neuronal connections by removing axons and pruning excess synapses...
March 22, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Xijiao Yu, Shuang Liu, Xue Chen, Yanmei Du, Xiaochun Yin, Yi Du, Shu Li
The study is to verify whether Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) gene-modified rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are promising seed cells with great potential to repair bone defect. A recombinant lentiviral vector overexpressing CGRP peptide, pLenO-DCE-CGRP, was constructed and transfected into rBMSCs to obtain stable CGRP expression. Differently transfected rBMSCs: CGRP- modified rBMSCs (CGRP group), empty vector- modified rBMSCs (Vector group) and normal rBMSCs (Control group) were transferred to collagen scaffold to repair rat skull defects (n=6)...
March 21, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Qing Li, Aihua Zhang, Changying Xing, Yanggang Yuan
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a worldwide health problem. Progression of CKD may lead to many serious complications, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Presently, there is no satisfactory treatment. Thus, targeted therapies are urgently needed. The kidneys are second to the heart in terms of mitochondrial abundance and oxygen consumption. Thus, it is not surprising that mitochondrial homeostasis is absolutely essential for the normal function of the kidney. In fact, a number of reports indicate that mitochondria are involved in the progression of CKD...
March 20, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Óscar Mariño-Crespo, Elisa Cuevas-Álvarez, Amy L Harding, Craig Murdoch, Almudena Fernández-Briera, Emilio Gil-Martín
Aims and experimental design. The acute-phase protein haptoglobin (Hp) has been recently detected in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue, where its expression correlates with metastasis. Recently, we identified Hp as a CDw75 antigen-expressing protein in colorectal tissue. To deepen the knowledge of this protein in CRC, we studied the expression of Hp in healthy and tumour tissue specimens from 62 CRC patients by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, as well as in the Caco-2 and HT-29 CRC cell lines by quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry...
March 13, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Kanae Nosaka, Karen Makishima, Tomohiko Sakabe, Yohei Yurugi, Makoto Wakahara, Yasuaki Kubouchi, Yasushi Horie, Yoshihisa Umekita
Micropapillary carcinoma (MPC), a relatively rare histologic carcinoma observed in various organs, is associated with vascular invasion, nodal metastasis, and poor prognosis. MPC is different from papillary carcinoma as it has no fibrovascular core and is thus considered essentially hypovascular. MPCs are known to upregulate glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) via the activation of a transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1. Here we evaluated the expression of nutrient transporters in MPCs to gain a better understanding of the system used by MPCs to compensate for their intrinsic poor vascularity...
March 11, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Koji Okudela, Hiromasa Arai, Hideya Kitamura, Tomohisa Baba, Hideaki Mitsui, Takehisa Suzuki, Misaki Sugiyama, Emi Honda, Mai Matsumura, Tamiko Takemura, Toshiaki Kataoka, Chihiro Koike, Yoko Tateshi, Michihiko Tajiri, Takashi Ogura, Kenichi Ohashi
A normal counterpart and precancerous lesion that non-terminal respiratory unit (TRU) lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs) develop from have not been clarified. Non-TRU LADCs specifically express hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). Thus, we have been interested in airway epithelial cells that express HNF4α as the potential precursor of non-TRU LADC. The purposes of the present study are to report the frequency and distribution of HNF4α-expressing cells at the different airway levels, and to investigate the potential significance of the expression of HNF4α in the histogenesis of non-TRU LADC with a special reference to the relationship to bronchiolar metaplasia in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia...
March 8, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
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