Montserrat Fernández-Guarino, Stefano Bacci
Mast cells, which originate from the bone marrow, possess the ability to secrete a diverse array of active molecules. These molecules include mediators (histamine, heparin), which have been identified for decades and are stored in specific granules, as well as small molecules generated instantaneously in response to stimulation (membrane lipid derivatives, nitric oxide), and a multitude of multifunctional cytokines that are secreted constitutively. Activated mast cells participate in the regulation of the local immune response and exert control over critical events of inflammation and healing with the assistance of a vast array of mediators...
May 6, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Deokho Lee, Yohei Tomita, Kazuno Negishi, Toshihide Kurihara
Retinal ischemia is a fundamental pathologic condition associated with retinal vascular occlusion, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and other eye diseases. Extensive inflammation, redox imbalance, apoptosis, and abnormal vascular formation in retinal ischemia could lead to visual impairments. Developing or finding effective treatments is urgently needed to protect the eye against retinal ischemia and related damage. To address the demand, we have searched for promising therapeutic molecular targets in the eye (e...
May 3, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Vincent Thomas-de-Montpréville, Lara Chalabreysse, Véronique Hofman, Anne de-Muret, Damien Sizaret, Romain Dubois, Nicolas Piton, Audrey Mansuet-Lupo, Thierry J Molina
Micronodular arrangement of epithelial cells and lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia with follicles are both peculiar histological features in thymic tissue. Such features may especially occur in thymic epithelial tumors. The most common form is called micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma. We have recently described some characteristics of thymic micronodular carcinoma with lymphoid hyperplasia, highlighting how this carcinomatous counterpart should not be misdiagnosed as a thymoma. In this review, we discuss these two entities but also other mimics, which may occur in the anterior mediastinum...
May 2, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Yuxia Zhao, Lianqun Wang, Rui Dong, Xuejun Cheng, Liqun Jia, Dan Qu, Lin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Periodontitis and atherosclerosis are chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by leukocyte infiltration. We investigated the expression of CCL4, CCR5, c-Jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, and CCL2 as well as the possible mechanism involved in the regulation of CCL2 in human periodontitis tissues and atherosclerotic aorta based on previous research on the CCL4/CCR5/c-Jun and c-Fos/CCL2 pathway leading to CCL2 expression in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat. METHODS: Sixty-five volunteers were recruited and the condition of their gingiva and coronary arteries were assessed...
April 30, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Ling Lin, Zhen Chen, Qiong Zhang, Ping Huang, Zhefei Zou, Yexian Zheng, Chang He, Xiang Gu, Dan Yu, Wei Chen
BACKGROUND: Berberine is an active compound found in different herbs used in Chinese medicine and is well-known for its potential anticancer properties. The study aimed to figure out the role of berberine in regulating the malignant behavior of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cells. METHODS: LSCC cell lines (SNU-899 and AMC-HN-8) were treated with different concentrations of berberine (0-200 μM) to determine its cytotoxicity. The migration, invasion, and apoptosis of LSCC cells were measured by wound healing assays, Transwell assays, and flow cytometry...
April 23, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Wei Sun, Xiaoying Shen, Xinyi Wang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yongling Ji, Jin Wang
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the association between NAT10 expression and clinical parameters while assessing prognostic outcomes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Furthermore, the study seeks to elucidate the functional role of NAT10 in neoplastic cell proliferation and apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NAT10 expression was assessed in ESCC tissue microarrays through immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests. We employed SPSS software to analyze the correlation between NAT10 staining data, clinical indicators, and their implications for patient prognosis...
April 22, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Masanao Saio, Raia Kushibiki, Yuki Kanehira, Akifumi Ishizawa, Yuka Abe, Sayaka Kobayashi, Yoshimi Nishijima
UNLABELLED: We measured section thickness (ST) after slicing using a film thickness meter and investigated the relationship between ST and the percent area of positive staining using computer-assisted image analysis. METHODS: Sections were prepared from a paraffin-only block and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks containing fish sausage and human liver specimens. The ST was compared between the sections prepared with cooling using an ice pack (IP) or a continuous cooling device (CCD) paired with a sliding microtome set at an ST of 4 µm...
April 19, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Patricia Ramírez-Perdomo, Juan Daniel Hernández-Marrero, Santiago Guillén-Molina, Pedro Saavedra-Santana, Mónica de León-Vera, Eduardo José Araujo-Ruano, Juan Francisco Loro-Ferrer, Juan José Cabrera-Galván, Juan Andrés Ramírez-González
The study aims to evaluate corneal healing post amniotic membrane transplantation in controlled corneal defects, justifying its application in routine ophthalmology practice. The objective is to establish a reliable method for assessing the repair process. In three groups of six adult New Zealand rabbits, keratectomy and a monolayer transplant of dehydrated human amniotic membrane (AM) were conducted in the left eye (OS) with the right eye (OD) serving as the control eye. Clinical signs were assessed, and both eyes were enucleated at 1, 2, and 4 weeks for optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements and histological analysis, collecting data from different epithelium, stroma, and limbus regions...
April 18, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Eunsun Park, Hyesung Kim, Seokho Yoon, Bogun Jang
The glycoprotein CD98, or CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc), encoded by the SLC3A2 gene, plays a crucial role in cancer development and progression. CD98hc, forming heterodimeric complexes with various light chains, regulates neutral amino acid transport across cell membranes. The intricate interplay between CD98hc, integrins, and amino acid transporters shapes the tumor microenvironment and contributes to tumor growth. Elevated expression of CD98hc in various cancers correlates with poor prognosis, making it a potential prognostic marker...
April 16, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Zhou Hua, Jiuhong Deng, Guiying Wang
OBJECTIVE: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a prevalent cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide. Moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1) has shown potential for DN management, however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. This research intended to evaluate the impact and mechanism of MIC-1 on DN. METHODS: Six C57BLKS/J-db/m mice served as controls. Eighteen C57BLKS/J-db/db mice were randomly separated into three groups: db/db, db/db + irbesartan (IBS), and db/db + MIC-1...
April 16, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Yanling Pan, Feng Yuan, Zhiren Lin, Yijie Li
Glioma is the most prevalent malignant tumor of the brain, and the study of the molecular mechanisms associated with its development has important clinical significance. Our previous study found that BPTF promotes the malignant phenotype of glioma and is significantly associated with poor prognosis; the downstream regulatory mechanisms are explored in this study. Western blot and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect protein expression in cells or tissues. BPTF knockdown as well as FOXC1-overexpressing lentiviruses were used in combination for the construction of the U251 cell model, leading to functional rescue experiments...
April 15, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Farnaz Tajbakhsh, Somayeh Tavana, Mohammad Kazemi Ashtiani, Christiani Andrade Amorim, Rouhollah Fathi
The damage or depletion of ovarian reserves due to aging or cancer treatment can increase the need for fertility preservation techniques. One of the most common ways of supporting fertility in prepubertal girls and women who require immediate cancer treatment is through ovarian tissue cryopreservation and re-transplantation following cancer treatment. However, a more appropriate method should be employed in diseases such as leukemia, where malignant cells may be present in cryopreserved tissue, instead of ovarian tissue transplantation...
April 12, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Lifang Sun, Xinxin He, Jiao Kong, Jianying Zhou
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lifelong lung disease, but there is no specific drug for treatment. Qingfei Xieding prescription (QF) is active in the treatment of lung diseases. More comprehensive mechanisms over how QF exhibits anti-pulmonary fibrosis need to be elucidated. TGF-β was used to construct a pulmonary fibrosis cell model in vitro . Bleomycin was applied to induce a lung tissue fibrosis model in mice in vivo . Flow cytometry was used to detect cellular ROS and lipid oxidation levels...
April 11, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Mert Kumbaraci, Banu Sarsik Kumbaraci, Basak Doganavsargil Yakut, Cenk Can, Gulcin Basdemir, Semih Aydogdu
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study is to compare the efficacy of epoprostenol and viscum album in the treatment of femoral head avascular necrosis with an experimental study. Our hypothesis is that viscum album, which has similar properties to epoprostenol on the vascular system, is as effective as epoprostenol in the treatment of avascular necrosis. METHODS: Avascular necrosis was created on the femoral heads of 45 New Zealand type rabbits by surgical vascular deprivation method...
April 9, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Akira Kawamura, Saishu Yoshida, Kiyotsugu Yoshida
To maintain microenvironmental and cellular homeostasis, cells respond to multiple stresses by activating characteristic cellular mechanisms consisting of receptors, signal transducers, and effectors. Dysfunction of these mechanisms can trigger multiple human diseases as well as cancers. Dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinases (DYRKs) are members of the CMGC group and are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. Previous studies revealed that DYRK2 has important roles in the regulation of the cell cycle and survival in cancer cells...
April 8, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Guoliang Wang, Feng Cheng, Jianxun Cui, Nan Chen, Qing Li
BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common chronic degenerative joint disease. 3D printing technology has become one of the important directions of medical development along with individualized precision treatment in orthopedics. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of 3D printing technology-assisted total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on cartilage in rabbits with KOA. METHODS: A rabbit model of KOA was established and treated by TKA or 3D printing-assisted TKA...
April 5, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Jing Xu, Qiong Wu, Yanfei Rao, Zhenjiang Li, Wenfeng He, Wanlei Sun, Jifu Zheng, Qingming Wang, Aiping Tang
A model construction of systemic acute leukemia is challenging. Herein, we established a systemic leukemia mouse model using highly immunodeficient NPG mice without any immunosuppressive treatments. NPG mice received tail intravenous injection of SHI-1 cells at the concentration of 1×107 cells (group A) or 5×107 cells (group B) and randomly sacrificed each seven days post-inoculation. Tumor development was monitored using nested-PCR, peripheral blood-smear analysis, flow cytometry, pathological examinations, and immunohistochemistry...
April 4, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Ruojing Bai, Xintong Ge
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a critical role in regulating the exchange of substances between peripheral blood and the central nervous system and in maintaining the stability of the neurovascular unit in neurological diseases. To guide clinical treatment and basic research on BBB protection following brain injury, this manuscript reviews how BBB disruption develops and influences neural recovery after stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). By summarizing the pathological mechanisms of BBB damage, we underscore the critical role of promoting BBB repair in managing brain injury...
April 1, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Zhengcong Ye, Jian Lin, Chun He, Pengzheng Yu, Guoping Cao, Qinrong Shen, Canfeng Wang
BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is one of the leading causes of disability. Polydatin has a potential effect on KOA treatment but the therapeutic mechanism is not clear. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic action of polydatin in KOA and its mechanism in activating autophagy via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mTOR signaling pathway. METHODS: After a KOA rat model was established by anterior cruciate ligament transection surgery, model rats were treated with polydatin 40 mg/kg for 30 days...
March 27, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
Jiang Zhao, Xiaolong Tang, Huijun Zhu
Chondroitin polymerizing factor (CHPF) has been reported to play a pivotal role in the progression of multiple cancers, however, the relationship between CHPF and colorectal cancer (CRC) progression has not been fully understood. The current study revealed that CHPF expression was upregulated in patients with CRC and correlated with an unfavorable prognosis. Also, CHPF knockdown effectively suppressed the viability and mobility of CRC cells and the growth of xenograft tumors. Additionally, SMAD9 was identified as a downstream target of CHPF...
March 26, 2024: Histology and Histopathology
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