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Histology and Histopathology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31298302/ultrastructural-evidence-of-the-evolutional-process-in-malakoplakia
#1
Huyn Seun Jung, Dong Yong Chung, Eun Jin Kim, Nam Hoon Cho
CONTEXT: Malakoplakia can be caused by incomplete digestion of Escherichia coli by lysosomes, leading to recurrent urinary tract infections and consequential mass-forming events that mimic tumors. OBJECTIVES: By using ultrastructural findings, we aimed to specify the process of phagolysosome to evoke malakoplakia. DESIGN: We observed a series of processes to form a peculiar Michaelis-Gutmann (MG) body in three patients with malakoplakia and compared with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis...
July 12, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31294456/dual-immune-functions-of-il-33-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
REVIEW
Jie Chen, Yan He, Lei Tu, Lihua Duan
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) has emerged as a critical regulator in a variety of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IL-33 can be produced by various tissues and cells, and typically induces Th2-type immune responses via binding to the receptor ST2. In addition, accumulated data have shown that IL-33 also plays a modulatory role in the function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), B cells, and innate immune cells such as macrophages and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). IBD, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are characterized by aberrant immunological responses leading to intestinal tissue injury and destruction...
July 11, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31290136/advances-in-understanding-mechanisms-of-long-term-sperm-storage-the-soft-shelled-turtle-model
#3
Hong Chen, Tengfei Liu, William V Holt, Ping Yang, Linli Zhang, Li Zhang, Xiangkun Han, Xunguang Bian, Qiusheng Chen
Long-term sperm storage is a special reproductive strategy, which can extend the time window between mating and fertilization in some animal species. Spermatozoa of the soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, can be stored in the epididymis and oviduct for at least six months and one year, respectively. How spermatozoa can be stored in vivo for such a prolonged period is yet to be explained. We analyze the mechanisms that contribute to long-term sperm storage in P. sinensis, and compare them with other species from three different perspectives: the spermatozoon itself, the storage microenvironment and the interaction between the spermatozoon and microenvironment...
July 10, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31286466/regulation-of-dna-methylation-levels-in-the-process-of-oral-mucosal-regeneration-in-a-rat-oral-ulcer-model
#4
Naotaro Akiyama, Tomomi Yamamoto-Fukuda, Mamoru Yoshikawa, Hiromi Kojima
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism for cellular maintenance. However, the methylation pattern and the key molecule regulated epigenetically in oral mucosal regeneration is unclear. In this study, we generated a rat oral ulcer model and investigated the cell proliferative activities and DNA methylation patterns immunohistochemically. We also performed immunohistochemical analysis of a regulator of epithelial stem/progenitor cell differentiation in the rat model. We demonstrated immunohistochemistry using antibodies for the molecules as follows: Ki-67, a marker of cellular proliferation; 5-methylcytosine (5-mC), a marker of DNA methylation; 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), a marker of DNA demethylation; Dnmt1, a maintenance DNA methyltransferase; Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, de novo DNA methyltransferases; and Wnt5a, a regulator of stem/progenitor cell differentiation...
July 9, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31282985/research-progress-on-sirt1-and-sepsis
#5
REVIEW
Lincheng Li, Mingchuan Liu, Mengyuan Cao, Ting He, Xiaozhi Bai
SIRT1, a member of the sirtuin family, belongs to the NAD +-dependent class III histone deacetylase. SIRT1 can regulate gene expression by catalyzing non-histone and histone lysine residues deacetylation. SIRT1 also plays important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism, cell aging, tumorigenesis and inflammation. Recent studies indicate that SIRT1 can inhibit the inflammatory responses via regulating several inflammatory signaling pathways. It is closely related to the occurrence and development of sepsis and other inflammatory diseases...
July 8, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31274171/comparative-study-of-calcium-and-calcium-related-enzymes-with-differentiation-markers-in-different-ages-and-muscle-types-in-mdx-mice
#6
Rhayanna B Gaglianone, Flavia Fonseca Bloise, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho, Thereza Quirico-Santos, Manoel Luis Costa, Claudia Mermelstein
Sarcolemma instability and increased calcium influx in muscle fibers are characteristics of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Excessive calcium activates calcium-dependent enzymes, such as calpains (CAPN) and matrix metalloproteases (MMP). Here, we analyzed calcium deposits, the activity of CAPN and MMP and the expression of Myh, SERCA and myogenic regulatory factors in different skeletal muscles during myonecrosis (4-weeks) and regeneration (12-weeks) phases of the mdx muscular pathology. Alizarin red staining was used to assess calcium deposits, casein and gelatin zymography were performed to evaluate CAPN and MMP activity, and qPCR was used to evaluate the expression of Myh, Capn, Atp2a1 and Atp2a2, Myod1 and Myog...
July 5, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31271442/comparative-study-of-the-eyelids-and-orbital-glands-morphology-in-the-okapi-okapia-johnstoni-giraffidae-p%C3%A3-re-david-s-deer-elaphurus-davidianus-cervidae-and-the-philippine-mouse-deer-tragulus-nigricans-tragulidae
#7
Joanna Elżbieta Klećkowska-Nawrot, Karolina Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina Barszcz
The accessory organs of the eye represent part of the protective system of the eyeball. In the present study, an examination of the accessory organs of the eye of three species of captive ruminants was performed using light microscopy. In the okapi, the superficial gland of the third eyelid and lacrimal gland were complex branched multilobar tubular glands formed by mucous units with tubular secretory portions and no plasma cells. The deep gland of the third eyelid was absent in the okapi and present in both the Père David's deer and the Philippine mouse-deer...
July 4, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31268167/bone-biology-in-postnatal-wistar-rats-following-hypoxia-reoxygenation
#8
Rita Hameister, Christoph H Lohmann, S Thameem Dheen, Gurpal Singh, Charanjit Kaur
Hypoxia response pathways have a central role in normal and abnormal bone biology but the effect of systemic hypoxia-reoxygenation on bone is not clear. Following hypoxic exposure, aberrant synthesis, folding and trafficking of proteins has been reported to occur, which can result in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and may finally cause cell death. This study aimed to examine the effect of systemic hypoxia-reoxygenation injury on bone biology in postnatal rats. Immunoexpression of HIF-1α and VEGF was upregulated in femurs of newborn Wistar rats in response to systemic hypoxia-reoxygenation...
July 3, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31264199/prevalence-of-and-helicobacter-pylori-infection-rate-in-heterotopic-gastric-mucosa-on-histological-analysis-of-duodenal-specimens-from-patients-with-duodenal-ulcer
#9
Hirotsugu Noguchi, Keiichiro Kumamoto, Yoshikazu Harada, Naoko Sato, Aya Nawata, Takashi Tasaki, Satoshi Kimura, Shohei Shimajiri, Toshiyuki Nakayama
Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb is a rare congenital disorder with varied clinical presentations. The mechanism of formation of a duodenal ulcer is failure of balance of the attack factor and the defense factor, which is the same as the mechanism of formation of a gastric ulcer. However, the true etiology of the duodenal ulcer remains unknown. Gastric mucosa can secrete gastric juice which injures itself, but the duodenal mucosa does not contain cells secreting a digestive enzyme. We assume that duodenal ulcers are caused by the presence of heterotopic gastric mucosa that can secrete gastric acid...
July 2, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31259382/frontotemporal-dementia-associated-protein-phosphorylated-tdp-43-localizes-to-atherosclerotic-lesions-of-human-carotid-and-main-cerebral-arteries
#10
Takahiko Umahara, Toshiki Uchihara, Kentaro Hirao, Soichiro Shimizu, Takao Hashimoto, Jiro Akimoto, Michihiro Kohno, Haruo Hanyu
The transactivation response DNA binding protein (TARDP) of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a nuclear protein pivotal in RNA processing. Because phosphorylated (p) TDP-43 has been identified as a component of ubiquitin-positive and tau-negative inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), it is considered to play a major role in neurodegenerative processes. We investigated the immunolocalization of pTDP-43 in atherosclerotic lesions of human carotid and main cerebral arteries...
July 1, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31250425/the-evaluation-of-the-distribution-of-cd133-cxcr1-and-the-tumor-associated-macrophages-in-different-molecular-subtypes-of-breast-cancer
#11
Can Ilgın, Erdem Çomut, Çağlar Sarıgül, Selçuk Korkmaz, Enver Vardar, Sevda Fatma Müftüoğlu
Breast cancer has different molecular subtypes, which determine the prognosis and response to the treatment. CD133 is a marker for cancer stem cells in tumor microenvironment with diagnostic/therapeutic importance. The tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) interact with the cancer stem cells through the CXCR1 receptor. In this study, we wanted to investigate the expression of these markers in patients with different molecular subtypes, in order to detect pathophysiological mechanisms and new molecular targets for the prospective targeted therapies...
June 28, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31246263/hypertension-accelerates-age-related-intrarenal-small-artery-irsa-remodelling-and-stiffness-in-rats-with-possible-involvement-of-ages-and-rage
#12
Yajing Bai, Xiaoyun Shi, Yilang Ke, Xiaohong Lin, Huashan Hong
OBJECTIVES: To study changes in morphology, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and the AGEs receptor, RAGE, that occur with ageing in intrarenal small arteries (IRSAs) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and to investigate the possible roles of hypertension, AGEs and RAGE in the progression of IRSA remodelling and stiffness with ageing in rats. METHODS: Ageing SHRs and ageing normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were studied. The minimal renal vascular resistance (minRVR) was measured...
June 27, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31219170/melanopsin-expressing-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-aging-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Gema Esquiva, Jens Hannibal
Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) constitute a system in the mammalian retina used for irradiance detection, regulating non-image forming functions, such as photoentrainment of circadian rhythms, control of the pupillary light reflex, masking response, light-regulated melatonin secretion, and modulation of the sleep/wake cycle. There are five subtypes of mRGCs differentiated by morphology and function. Recent years of research on mRGCs have identified a broad number of neurodegenerative diseases in the eye and the brain with altered physiologic light responses, leading to disturbances of non-image forming light response(s)...
June 20, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31215019/age-and-sex-associated-changes-in-prosaposin-and-its-receptors-in-the-lacrimal-glands-of-rats
#14
Farzana Islam, Sakirul Islam Khan, Hiroaki Nabeka, Tetsuya Shimokawa, Kimiko Yamamiya, Seiji Matsuda
Prosaposin, a saposin precursor, is a potent neurotrophic factor found in several tissues and various biological fluids. Saposin-deficient patients have different ophthalmic disorders, indicating a relationship between ocular health and prosaposin. However, there is little information about prosaposin on the ocular surface. Because ocular functions are diverse and depend on age and sex, we examined whether prosaposin and its receptors, G protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37) and GPR37L1, are expressed in the major ocular glands, the extra orbital lacrimal gland (ELG), and harderian gland (HG) of rats and whether sex and aging affect their expression...
June 19, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31187871/ultrastructural-changes-of-the-human-enteric-nervous-system-and-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-diverticular-disease
#15
Paulius Alaburda, Jaune I Lukosiene, Audrys G Pauza, Kristina Rysevaite-Kyguoliene, Juozas Kupcinskas, Zilvinas Saladzinskas, Algimantas Tamelis, Neringa Pauziene
BACKGROUND: In spite of numerous advances in understanding diverticular disease, its pathogenesis remains one of the main problems to be solved. We aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes of the enteric nervous system in unaffected individuals, in asymptomatic patients with diverticulosis and in patients with diverticular disease. METHODS: Transmission electron microscopy was used to analyse samples of the myenteric, outer submucosal and inner submucosal plexuses from patients without diverticula (n=9), asymptomatic patients with diverticulosis (n=7) and in patients with complicated diverticular disease (n=9)...
June 12, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31184368/optimization-of-rna-extraction-from-laser-captured-microdissected-glomeruli-from-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-mouse-kidney-samples-for-nanostring-analysis
#16
Abigail Hay, Jean-Martin Lapointe, Arthur Lewis, Carol Moreno Quinn, Elena Miranda
Optimized protocols for the microdissection of specific areas from archival tissues and the subsequent RNA analysis are needed but challenging due to RNA degradation and chemical modifications. The aim of this study was to present the most appropriate protocol for utilizing mouse FFPE kidney for laser capture microdissection and Nanostring gene expression analysis. We evaluated different section thicknesses (3, 5, 10 μm), 2 RNA extraction kits (Qiagen and Roche) and different H&E staining methods to optimize microdissection and RNA extraction from glomeruli and cortical tubules samples from FFPE mouse kidney...
June 11, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31173272/morphological-changes-during-the-formation-of-amoebic-liver-abscess-in-vagotomized-hamsters
#17
Esperanza Sánchez-Alemán, Leticia María Lili-Carrillo, Martin Humberto Muñoz-Ortega, Ma Consolación Martínez-Saldaña, Javier Ventura-Juárez
Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the main extra-intestinal complication caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Given the histological features of ALA in hamsters and the importance of the vagus nerve in the immune response, the aim of this study was to identify and analyze the major changes in ALA that are caused by a vagotomy. The changes found are related to inflammatory foci and abscess size, the type of collagen formed, and the number of trophozoites in lesions. Male hamsters were divided into three groups: Intact animals (IA) and those undergoing a false operation (SHAM) or a subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VAG)...
June 7, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31169298/small-molecule-gsk-3-antagonists-play-a-pivotal-role-in-reducing-the-local-inflammatory-response-in-promoting-resident-stem-cell-activation-and-in-improving-tissue-repairing-in-regenerative-dentistry
#18
REVIEW
Marco Tatullo, Irina Makeeva, Sandro Rengo, Carlo Rengo, Gianrico Spagnuolo Bruna Codispoti Marco Tatullo Tecnologicasrl Com, Bruna Codispoti
Regenerative dentistry is attracting growing interest in the scientific community, mainly because of its translational and promising therapeutic approach. The latest research carried out by the scientific community are aimed at triggering the local cellular response, in order to induce a physiological self-repairing of damaged oral tissues. Such physiological processes mainly involve the activation of local stem cell populations: mesenchymal stem cells, in fact, retain the ability to proliferate and to differentiate towards functional mature elements, thus leading towards healing of damaged tissues...
June 6, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31166002/microvascular-pathology-in-friedreich-cardiomyopathy
#19
Arnulf H Koeppen, Jiang Qian, Alicia M Travis, Alyssa B Sossei, Paul J Feustel, Joseph E Mazurkiewicz
Heart disease is an integral part of Friedreich ataxia (FA). In addition to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, fiber necrosis, and inflammatory infiltration, sections show fibrosis and disorganized capillaries. We examined the left ventricular wall (LVW) of 41 homozygous and 2 compound heterozygous FA patients aged 10-87 and 21 controls aged 2-69. Immunohistochemistry with an antibody to CD34 allowed quantitative counts of capillary profiles for a comparison with cardiomyocyte counts in the same field. Capillary counts (mean±standard deviation [SD]) in normal controls were 1926±341/mm², while mean cardiomyocyte counts were 2003±686/mm²...
June 5, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31157913/hgsnat-enzyme-deficiency-results-in-accumulation-of-heparan-sulfate-in-podocytes-and-basement-membranes
#20
Lauren Nagel, Regiana Oliveira, Alexey V Pshezhetsky, Carlos R Morales
Mucopolysaccharidosis III type C is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the accumulation of heparan sulfate in lysosomes. The disorder occurs due to Heparan Acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase (HGSNAT) deficiency, an enzyme which typically catalyzes the transmembrane acetylation of heparan sulfate, a basement membrane component. When the gene encoding this enzyme is mutated, it cannot perform the processing of heparan sulfate, leading to un-acetylated heparan sulfate build-up in the lysosomes of cells, causing a storage disorder...
June 3, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
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