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Histology and Histopathology

Lais Silva Nascimento, Larissa Martins Tedesco, Natiele Araujo Silva, Fernanda Bruschi Marinho Priviero, Mario Angelo Claudino, Denise Gonçalves Priolli, Thalita Rocha
Heart failure (HF) is the final common pathway of many cardiovascular diseases. Metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, such as MMP9 and TIMP-1, assist in maintaining the extracellular matrix, leading to tissue remodeling observed after HF. Previous studies have shown that L-Arginine (LA) appears to have beneficial effects for the treatment of HF, contributing to vasodilation, the reestablishment of the endothelial function and an increase in muscle contractile force. This study analyzed heart tissue remodeling in an animal model of HF induced by aortocaval fistula (ACF) and submitted to LA treatment...
May 17, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
María Elena Soto, Elizabeth Soria-Castro, Verónica Guarner-Lans, Andrés Martínez Guzmán, Cesar Amilcar Morales Marín, Karla Susana Martínez Zavala, Israel Pérez-Torres
Marfan syndrome (MS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue that is caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 (FBN-1) gene that cause degeneration of the artery. It is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. The potential transient receptor of the vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) ion channel plays an important role in endothelial vascular functioning. Here we determine the association of the presence TRPV1 in aortic aneurysm with dilation and dissection of the artery in MS patients. Histological sections of aortic aneurysm tissue obtained by the surgical procedure of Bentall and De Bono or David, were processed by immunohistochemistry with antibodies against ICAM, VCAM, iNOS, eNOS, TRPV1 and TNF-α and the immunolabelling area was determined...
May 10, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Hani A Alturkistani, Osama A H Abuzinadah, Abdelhakeem M Kelany, Gamal S Abd El-Aziz, Aziza R Alrafiah
BACKGROUND: Honey and olive oil are natural products that have high nutritional values, and therapeutic properties. Cytotoxic drugs, like methotrexate (MTX) are used to treat malignancies in tumour cells; however, these drugs also have serious side effects that could threaten the patient's life. AIM: To evaluate the potential protective effects of honey and olive oil, administered alone or together, against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Adult male albino rats were divided: Group I: negative control (n=8); II: honey ( daily by oral 1...
May 9, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Soo Yeon Lee, Wonkyung Jung, Jinhwan Lee, Aeree Kim, Han Kyeom Kim, Baek-Hui Kim
DEK is an oncogene that has been identified as part of the DEK-CAN fusion gene. DEK plays a role in carcinogenesis through WNT signaling and induces cell proliferation through cyclin-dependent kinase signaling. DEK overexpression has been reported in HCC, but the clinical significance is unclear. This study enrolled 221 cases of HCC. The expression of DEK protein was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Cdk4, cyclin D1, Wnt10b, E-cadherin, and β-catenin were also immunohistochemically stained and analyzed for correlation...
May 8, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Wang-Yu Zhu, Xiao-Fei Hu, Ke-Xin Fang, Qiong-Qiong Kong, Ri Cui, Hai-Feng Li, Jian-Ying He, Yong-Kui Zhang, Han-Bo Le
INTRODUCTION: The clinical characteristics of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation have been well studied. However, the correlation of EGFR mutation with mutant p53, Ki-67, and thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and their prognostic value remain indistinct. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical and pathological characteristics and overall survival were analysed retrospectively in 523 surgically resected NSCLC patients...
May 7, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Lorenzo Alibardi
The hypothesis here presented tries to explain why organ regeneration is present in fish and amphibians (anamniotes) but is absent in reptiles, birds and mammals (amniotes). Anamniotes possess complex life cycles including larvae and metamorphosis stages, the latter representing a physiological form of organ destruction and regeneration coded in their genome that can be reactivated in adults in the form of regeneration. Part of the genome for larvae and metamorphosis phases was likely lost in amniotes with the evolution of direct development, the potentiation of the immune system and the increase in complexity of the nervous system...
May 6, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Mohammad Reza Salahshoor, Zahra Gholami Mahmoudian, Shiva Roshankhah, Mehdi Farokhi, Cyrus Jalili
This experiment evaluated the effects of harmine against nicotine-induced damage to the liver of mice. Nicotine is a major toxic component of cigarette smoke and a major risk factor for functional disorders in the liver, because it induces oxidative stress. Harmine is a harmal-derived alkaloid with therapeutic and antioxidant properties. In this study, 80 male mice were randomly assigned to 10 groups: the normal control and nicotine control groups (2.5 mg/kg); the harmine groups (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg), and the nicotine + harmine groups (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg mg/kg)...
May 3, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Qin Ye, Jiayang Liu, Ke Xie
Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) form one of the largest families of transcription factors in human genetics, via their conserved zinc finger motifs. ZFPs function in many biological processes including development, differentiation, metabolism and apoptosis. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that ZFPs are closely associated with different stages of cancer development. One of the hallmarks of cancer is altered signal transduction cascades and an understanding of the changes in these pathways is essential for targeted cancer therapy...
May 2, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Yang Liu, Yao Wang, Qian Chen, Fangzhou Jiao, Luwen Wang, Zuojiong Gong
INTRODUCTION: Histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitor has the effect of anti-tumor and inhibiting apoptosis, and could inhibit the release of inflammatory factors, reducing the damage to liver and enterocytes in acute liver failure (ALF). HDAC2 specific inhibitor CAY10683 was used to verify the protective effect on acute liver failure through reducing intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN) was used to induce ALF in Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 29, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Norihiko Sasaki, Yoko Itakura, Fujiya Gomi, Kazumi Hirano, Masashi Toyoda, Toshiyuki Ishiwata
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small group of cells within a tumor that preserve stemness and enhance regrowth of cancer cells. CSCs have important implications in resistance to conventional therapies and tumor relapse, although their detailed properties remain unknown. Thus, CSCs represent promising targets to improve cancer treatment. So far, a number of cell surface markers containing glycans have been exploited to identify and isolate CSCs. Cell surface glycans are well-known markers for specific cell types and also play important cellular roles, such as regulation of cell signaling...
April 26, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Carlos A Mandarim-de-Lacerda
One hundred and fifty years ago, Paul Langerhans described what would come to be known as pancreatic 'islet of Langerhans'. Since then, we have accumulated knowledge about the pancreatic islet, the cells that exist there and the hormones secreted by these cells. The increasing prevalence of obesity, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease in the population (three conditions that are linked to pancreatic islet function), the islet has been playing a significant role in endocrinological and metabolic studies searching how we can protect the pancreatic islet and its cell content, or how we can regenerate it...
April 25, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Alicja Zientara, Michael Stephan, Stephan von Hörsten, Andreas Schmiedl
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation often leads to lung injury, in which pulmonary recruitment of neutrophils plays a pivotal role. Inflammatory processes are influenced by CD26/DPP4, highly expressed in lungs. Asthma induced CD26/DPP4 deficient (CD26/DPP4⁻) Fischer (F) 344 rats suffering from a transport block in the rER caused by a point mutation showed reduced pulmonary inflammation and reduced expression of immunomodulating surfactant proteins (SP). The degree of LPS induced lung injury in CD26/DPP4 deficient rats has not been investigated so far...
April 12, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Carla Loreto, Claudia Lombardo, Rosario Caltabiano, Vera Filetti, Ermanno Vitale, Danilo Seminara, Sergio Castorina, Concettina Fenga, Caterina Ledda, Venerando Rapisarda
To investigate the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, (MMP)-13, E-Cadherin and Ki-67 expressions in road pavers' skin chronically exposed to bitumen products in order to contribute to a better understanding of the earlier tissue alteration. Skin punch biopsies from 16 daily exposed workers and a control group were studied by immunohistochemistry. Morphometric and densitometric analyses were also conducted. Morphological specimen evaluation of skin of road pavers showed epidermal thinning, flattening and loss of intercellular junction with a decreased expression of E-cadherin confined to the basal skin layer, together with MMP-9 and MMP-13 overexpressions in all epidermis layers, vascular structures and adnexa...
April 11, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Ursula Doris, Sanjay Kharche, Maria Petkova, Balint Borbas, Sunil Jit R J Logantha, Olga Fedorenko, Michal Maczewski, Urszula Mackiewicz, Yu Zhang, Anwar Chahal, Alicia D'Souza, Andrew J Atkinson, Halina Dobrzynski, Joseph Yanni
Background- Functional properties of the sinoatrial node (SAN) are known to differ between sexes. Women have higher resting and intrinsic heart rates. Sex determines the risk of developing certain arrhythmias such as sick sinus syndrome, which occur more often in women. We believe that a major contributor to these differences is in gender specific ion channel expression. Methods- qPCR was used to compare ion channel gene expression in the SAN and right atrium (RA) between male and female rats. Histology, immunohistochemistry and signal intensity analysis were used to locate the sinus node and determine abundance of ion channels...
April 10, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Toshiaki Kataoka, Koji Okudela, Yu Nakashima, Hideaki Mitsui, Mai Matsumura, Shigeaki Umeda, Hiromasa Arai, Tomohisa Baba, Takehisa Suzuki, Chihiro Koike, Yoko Tateishi, Michihiko Tajiri, Tamiko Takemura, Takashi Ogura, Munetaka Masuda, Kenichi Ohashi
In order to clarify idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP)-associated lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), we herein focused on the expression profiles of mucin proteins, the most common cellular differentiation markers. The expression of the mucin (MUC) 1, MUC2, MUC3B, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6, MUC7, MUC9, and MUC21 proteins was examined immunohistochemically and their levels were semi-quantified in 80 IIP-associated LADCs and 106 non-IIP LADCs. LADCs were divided into low and high expressers based on thresholds obtained from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of each mucin protein...
April 9, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
K Misiakiewicz-Has, D Maciejewska, A Kolasa-Wołosiuk, A Pilutin, S Rzeszotek, A Wilk, D Szypulska-Koziarska, E Stachowska, A Łukomska, B Wiszniewska
Obesity and type-2 diabetes are often associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Soya isoflavones act as antidiabetic agents and protect against NAFLD. There are data suggesting that inulin may increase the plasma concentration and effect of soya isoflavones. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soya isoflavones, as opposed to the effect of soya isoflavones with inulin, on plasma lipid profile, liver morphology, and liver fatty acids in rats with induced type-2 diabetes mellitus...
April 8, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Anna Luiza Silva Almeida Vicente, Raquel Alves Bianchini, Ana Carolina Laus, Graziela Macedo, Rui Manuel Reis, Vinicius de Lima Vazquez
Melanin is produced by melanocytes and protects against DNA damage by ultraviolet light. Unfortunately, the melanin protein present in melanoma tumor cells is often co-purified during DNA extraction, and this contamination may inhibit subsequent PCR methods, which directly impacts research applications and the molecular diagnostic tests needed for targeted therapeutics. There are presently no described purification protocols that efficiently remove melanin from genomic DNA. In this study, we compare six different methods for melanin removal from genomic DNA: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, 1mg Chelex®-100, Chelex®-100 5%, centrifugation, OneStep™ PCR Inhibitor Removal Kit and centrifugation plus OneStep™ PCR Inhibitor Removal Kit...
April 5, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Mikhail Inyushin, Astrid Zayas-Santiago, Legier Rojas, Yuri Kucheryavykh, Lilia Kucheryavykh
Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides have been implicated in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and glaucoma and have been shown to be the key etiological factor in these dangerous health complications. On the other hand, it is well known that Aβ peptide can be generated from its precursor protein and massively released from the blood to nearby tissue upon the activation of platelets due to their involvement in innate immunity and inflammation processes. Here we review evidence about the development of AD and glaucoma neuronal damage showing their dependence on platelet count and activation...
April 4, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Juan José Cabrera-Galván, María Soledad Martínez-Martin, Daniel Déniz-García, Eduardo Araujo-Ruano, María Del Mar Travieso-Aja
The various forms of Alexander disease (AD) have been linked to heterozygous point mutations in the coding region of the HUMAN GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN (GFAP) gene. The aim of this study was to confirm and characterise an adult variant of AD based on the presence of Rosenthal fibres, which were identified at brain autopsy. We performed histological and immunohistochemical studies and mutation screening by cycle sequencing of exons 1, 4, 6, and 8. A heterozygous D128N GFAP mutation, previously described in three other cases of adult-onset AD (AOAD), was genetically confirmed...
April 3, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Juliana Knief, Pamela Lazar-Karsten, Ulrich Wellner, Richard Hummel, Christoph Thorns
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have commonly been associated with markedly improved prognosis in a variety of human cancers, including carcinomas of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Especially the presence of T-cells (cytotoxic as well as helper cells) seems to define a subgroup of patients with prolonged overall and event-free survival. The density of TILs was assessed via immunohistochemistry for CD8 and CD103 in a population of 228 adenocarcinomas of the esophagogastric junction. Density of CD8+ T-lymphocytes was inversely correlated with depth of tumor infiltration (p=0...
April 2, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
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