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sCD155 as a potential marker for diagnosing the vascular invasion in hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.

Acta Tropica 2024 April 10
BACKGROUND: Alveolar Echinococcosis (AE) is a malignant zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis infection. Considering whether the lesion is accompanied by vascular invasion (VI) is crucial for treatment strategies. A cost-effective and convenient clinical diagnostic method is urgently needed to supplement current techniques. Consequently, we detected soluble CD155 (sCD155) as a potential biomarker for diagnosing VI in hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE).

METHODS: Blood samples were from 42 AE patients and 49 healthy controls (HCs). Based on the computed tomography (CT) and contrast-enhanced CT, AE patients were further categorized into HAE with VI (VIAE; 27 cases) and HAE without VI (NVAE; 15 cases). The sCD155 concentration was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Correlations between sCD155 expression levels and clinicopathological features of AE patients were analyzed using SPSS and GraphPad Prism software.

RESULTS: The sCD155 concentrations in AE patients were significantly higher than in HCs. The serum sCD155 level significantly differed between the VIAE and NVAE groups. The univariate analysis showed that VI of AE was significantly correlated with the sCD155 level when the sCD155 was greater than 11 ng/mL. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the multivariable analysis showed that sCD155 had an independent effect on VI of HAE. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that sCD155 could differentially diagnose VI of HAE at the cut-off value of 11.08 ng/mL with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.75. The sensitivity and specificity were 74.07 % and 66.67 %, respectively; the positive and negative predictive values were 74.07 % and 60.00 %, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The sCD155 could be a VI biomarker for HAE. Elevated sCD155 levels are indicative of an increased likelihood of concomitant VI in HAE patients, necessitating a thorough evaluation of vascular impairment and the formulation of individualized management strategies.

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