Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Progression of Mild Mitral Annulus Calcification to Mitral Valve Dysfunction and Impact on Mortality.

BACKGROUND: Mitral annulus calcification (MAC) represents a degenerative process resulting in calcium deposition in the mitral valve apparatus. MAC is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. We sought to examine the long-term significance of mild MAC and its relationship to subsequent mitral valve dysfunction (MVD) and mortality in patients without MVD on the initial echocardiogram.

METHODS: A total of 1420 patients with mild MAC and no MVD at baseline, and one or more follow-up echocardiograms at least one year after the baseline echocardiogram were included in the analysis. For patients with >1 echocardiogram during follow-up, the last echocardiogram was used. The same criteria were used to identify 6496 patients without MAC. Mitral valve dysfunction (MVD) was defined as mitral regurgitation (MR) and/or mitral stenosis (MS) of ≥moderate severity. Mixed disease was defined as the concurrent presence of both ≥ moderate MS and MR. The primary endpoint was development of MVD, and the secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality.

RESULTS: For patients with mild MAC, age was 74±10 years and 528 (37%) were female. Over a median follow-up of 4.7 (IQR 2.7-6.9) years, 215 patients with mild MAC developed MVD, including MR in 170 (79%), MS in 37 (17%), and mixed disease in 8 (4%). In a multivariable regression model compared to patients without MAC, the presence of mild MAC was independently associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio 1.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 1.66, p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier 4-year survival rates were 80% and 90% for patients with mild MAC and no MAC, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Mild MAC observed on transthoracic echocardiography is an important clinical finding with prognostic implications for both valvular function and mortality.

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

Related Resources

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app