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Association of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor genetic polymorphisms with recurrent pregnancy loss: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

OBJECTIVE: Estrogen and progesterone play key roles in the maintenance of pregnancy, and their function is mediated via estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1)/estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2) and progesterone receptor (PGR), respectively. It has been suggested the genetic variations in ESR1, ESR2, and PGR may contribute to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL); however, the available evidence remains controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the relation of various polymorphisms in ESR1, ESR2, and PGR genes to the risk of RPL.

METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Scopus up to August 2023 to obtain relevant studies. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were computed and pooled with the use of random-effects models to test the associations.

RESULTS: A total of 31 studies with 12 different polymorphisms, including 5 polymorphisms for ESR1, 3 polymorphisms for ESR2, and 4 polymorphisms for PGR, were analyzed in this meta-analysis. Overall, no significant relationship was found between various polymorphisms of ESR1 and ESR2 with RPL in any of the genetic analysis models. PGR rs590688 (C > G) polymorphism was significantly related to the elevated risk of RPL under the dominant (OR = 1.67; 95 %CI: 1.15-2.44), allelic (OR = 1.55; 95 %CI: 1.13-2.12), and GC vs. CC (OR = 1.55; 95 %CI: 1.07-2.23) models. No significant association was identified for other variants of PGR gene.

CONCLUSION: Unlike estrogen receptors, variations in PGR rs590688 (C > G) may be linked to the increased risk of RPL. More studies are required to confirm this finding.

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