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Sex differences in blood pressure phenotypes over time - the HELIUS study.

Journal of Hypertension 2024 January 32
BACKGROUND: Hypertension can be classified into different phenotypes according to systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). In younger adults, these phenotypical differences have different prognostic value for men and women. However, little is known about sex differences in the natural course of different BP phenotypes over time.

METHODS: We used baseline and follow-up data from the multiethnic, population-based HELIUS study to assess differences in BP phenotypes over time in men and women aged < 45 years stratified according to baseline office BP into normotension (<140/<90 mmHg), isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, ≥140/<90 mmHg), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH, <140/≥90 mmHg) or systolic diastolic hypertension (SDH, ≥140/≥90 mmHg). Logistic regression adjusted for age, ethnicity, and follow-up time was used to assess the risk of hypertension at follow-up (BP ≥140/90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medication), stratified by sex.

RESULTS: We included 4103 participants [mean age 33.5 years (SD 7.4), 43.4% men] with a median follow-up time of 6.2 years. Compared to normotensive individuals, the age-adjusted odds ratios (OR) for having hypertension at follow-up were 4.78 (95% CI 2.90; 7.76) for ISH, 6.02 (95% CI 3.70; 9.74) for IDH and 33.73 (95% CI 20.35; 58.38) for SDH in men, while in women, OR were 10.08 (95% CI 4.09; 25.56) for ISH, 27.59 (95% CI 14.68; 53.82) for IDH and 50.58 (95% CI 24.78; 114.84) for SDH.

CONCLUSIONS: The risk of hypertension at follow-up was higher among women for all phenotypes compared to men, particularly in those with IDH. Findings of this study emphasize the importance of close BP monitoring in the young, especially in women.

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