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A role of platelet C-type lectin-like receptor-2 and its ligand podoplanin in vascular biology.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Platelets are essential for hemostasis and are also vital in lymphatic and lung development and the maintenance of vascular integrity. Platelet activation receptor C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) and its endogenous ligand podoplanin (PDPN) in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and other cells regulate these processes. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the roles of platelet CLEC-2 and PDPN. This review also focuses on discussing the underlying mechanisms by which platelet CLEC-2 and PDPN mediate blood/lymphatic separation.

FINDINGS: CLEC-2/PDPN-induced platelet activation in the primary lymph sacs, developmental lymphovenous junctions, neonatal mesentery, and the site of tumor lymphangiogenesis prevents blood/lymphatic vessel misconnection. Further, CLEC-2/PDPN-induced platelet activation is essential for lung development. Mice deficient in CLEC-2 or PDPN show blood-filled lymphatics, lung malformations, and cerebrovascular abnormalities. CLEC-2 deletion in steady-state adult mice did not result in blood/lymphatic vessel mixing. In adulthood, CLEC-2 maintains vascular integrity and that of high endothelial venules in lymph nodes. CLEC-2 deletion in adulthood results in hemorrhage under inflammatory conditions, and hemolymph nodes.

SUMMARY: The platelet CLEC-2/LEC PDPN interaction prevents blood/lymphatic vessel mixing at active remodeling sites of the blood/lymphatic system, but not in steady-state adult mice. This interaction also regulates vascular integrity when vascular permeability increases before and after birth.

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