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Current Opinion in Hematology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30640735/luke-fletcher-md1-2-and-uma-borate-md1-2
#1
Luke Fletcher, Uma Borate
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the pathophysiology of systemic mastocytosis, review the most recent clinical trials and drug development in systemic mastocytosis, with a specific focus on the advanced systemic mastocytosis subtypes. RECENT FINDINGS: Systemic mastocytosis is a clonal neoplasm of mast cells that has had a number of successful therapeutic options being developed in the past few years. The first therapeutic agent to be Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved in decades was midostaurin in 2017 with a 60% response rate % with improvement in both end-organ damage and symptoms...
January 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30585894/outpatient-induction-and-consolidation-care-strategies-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#2
Anna B Halpern, Roland B Walter, Elihu H Estey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are almost invariably kept in the hospital until resolution of cytopenias following intensive induction chemotherapy. This care approach is costly and may further contribute to the reduced qualify of life of these patients. This has raised interest in moving at least part of this care to the outpatient setting. Reimbursement challenges for inpatient administration of some of the new drugs approved for AML in the last 2 years adds to this interest...
December 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694839/novel-approaches-for-systemic-mastocytosis
#3
Luke Fletcher, Uma Borate
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the pathophysiology of systemic mastocytosis, review the most recent clinical trials and drug development in systemic mastocytosis, with a specific focus on the advanced systemic mastocytosis subtypes. RECENT FINDINGS: Systemic mastocytosis is a clonal neoplasm of mast cells that has had a number of successful therapeutic options being developed in the past few years. The first therapeutic agent to be Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved in decades was midostaurin in 2017 with a 60% response rate % with improvement in both end-organ damage and symptoms...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694838/editorial-introduction
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30652974/why-are-hypomethylating-agents-or-low-dose-cytarabine-and-venetoclax-so-effective
#5
Daniel A Pollyea, Craig T Jordan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Venetoclax with backbone therapies have shown promising efficacy for newly diagnosed, previously untreated, older, unfit acute myeloid leukemia patients. This review discusses this data and potential reasons for the efficacy of these venetoclax-based combinations. RECENT FINDINGS: Venetoclax with hypomethylators and low-dose cytarabine have resulted in high response rates, promising response durations, and significant overall survival in relatively small, uncontrolled studies...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30640734/progress-in-the-problem-of-relapsed-or-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#6
Alice S Mims, William Blum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) die from disease recurrence and historically, treatment options in both the relapsed and refractory settings of this disease have been limited. However, new insights into the molecular characterization and biology of relapsed and refractory AML have led to novel therapeutics and improvement in outcomes in these settings. The current understanding of mechanisms of disease resistance and status of treatment options both currently available and under exploration in relapsed and refractory AML are summarized in this review...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30632987/what-are-the-most-promising-new-agents-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#7
Namrata S Chandhok, Prajwal C Boddu, Steven D Gore, Thomas Prebet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a diverse group of clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells that represent the most common class of acquired bone marrow failure syndromes in adults. Despite significant improvement in the pathologic insight into this group of disorders, therapeutic options remain limited and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is the only treatment that can induce long-term remission in patients with MDS. The goals of therapy for MDS are based on disease prognostication, with a focus of minimizing transfusion dependence and preserving quality of life in low-risk groups and preventing progression of disease to acute myeloid leukemia in high-risk groups...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624312/posttransplant-maintenance-therapy-for-acute-leukemias
#8
Shyam K Poudel, Marcos de Lima, Leland Metheny
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation cures a significant proportion of patients with hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, leukemia recurrence is the main cause of transplant failure. Risk factors for relapse include presence of minimal residual disease and a variety of well-recognized leukemia prognostic factors. Posttransplant therapy could decrease the risk of leukemia relapse and is under investigation. In this review, we summarize the current research in maintenance therapy for the prevention of acute leukemia recurrence after allogeneic transplant...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30608253/novel-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-for-patients-with-inadequate-response-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#9
Michael J Mauro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize treatment expectations and response milestones, to conceptualize the approach to defining inadequate response to therapy and critically appraise current available strategies, as well to highlight novel agents under development to address unmet needs in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Given excess risk with currently available highly potent ABL1 (Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1) inhibitors, a number of alternate, highly potent compounds have entered the clinic to address select resistance such as the T315I mutation with the promise of greater selectivity and better adverse event profile...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30585895/shifting-therapeutic-paradigms-in-induction-and-consolidation-for-older-adults-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#10
Tsila Zuckerman, Jacob M Rowe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the age and life expectancy of the general population rise, the number of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients suitable for therapy is expected to dramatically increase. The population of older adults with AML, while already comprising the vast majority of AML patients, has not been specifically addressed in terms of unique age-related features, such as existence of comorbidities, frailty, and disease biology. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past decade, major improvements in the approach to the management of older adults with AML included: incorporation of new comorbidity scores specifically oriented to this patient population that can predict individual fitness to treatment, refined knowledge of the unique mutational landscape, and incorporating new combinations and novel agents designed to target the AML biology...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30585893/which-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-in-cr1-can-be-spared-an-allogeneic-transplant
#11
Charles Craddock, Manoj Raghavan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disease relapse remains the major cause of treatment failure in adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) treated with intensive chemotherapy alone. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) reduces the risk of disease recurrence, and thus the advent of reduced intensity-conditioning regimens coupled with increased donor availability has increased the deliverability of potentially curative transplant therapy in AML. However, allo-SCT remains associated with significant additional morbidity and mortality, and it is therefore important to identify patients whose outcome if treated with chemotherapy alone is good enough to spare them the risks associated with allo-SCT...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30451722/editorial-update-in-myeloid-biology
#12
David C Dale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30451721/cell-biology-of-activated-protein-c
#13
Khurrum Shahzad, Shrey Kohli, Moh'd Mohanad Al-Dabet, Berend Isermann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The serine protease activated protein C (aPC) was initially characterized as an endogenous anticoagulant, but in addition conveys anti-inflammatory, barrier-protective, and pro cell-survival functions. Its endogenous anticoagulant function hampered the successful and continuous implantation of aPC as a therapeutic agent in septic patients. However, it became increasingly apparent that aPC controls cellular function largely independent of its anticoagulant effects through cell-specific and context-specific receptor complexes and intracellular signaling pathways...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30451720/neutropenia-in-glycogen-storage-disease-ib-outcomes-for-patients-treated-with-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor
#14
David C Dale, Audrey Anna Bolyard, Tracy Marrero, Merideth L Kelley, Vahagn Makaryan, Emily Tran, Jamie Leung, Laurence A Boxer, Priya S Kishnani, Stephanie Austin, Corbinian Wanner, Iris A Ferrecchia, Dina Khalaf, Dawn Maze, Joanne Kurtzberg, Cornelia Zeidler, Karl Welte, David A Weinstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glycogen storage disease Ib (GSD Ib) is characterized by hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, neutropenia, enterocolitis and recurrent bacterial infections. It is attributable to mutations in G6PT1, the gene for the glucose-6-phosphate transporter responsible for transport of glucose into the endoplasmic reticulum. Neutropenia in GSD Ib is now frequently treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We formed a cooperative group to review outcomes of the long-term treatment of GSD Ib patients treated with G-CSF...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30451719/neutropenia-in-barth-syndrome-characteristics-risks-and-management
#15
Colin G Steward, Sarah J Groves, Carolyn T Taylor, Melissa K Maisenbacher, Birgitta Versluys, Ruth A Newbury-Ecob, Hulya Ozsahin, Michaela K Damin, Valerie M Bowen, Katherine R McCurdy, Michael C Mackey, Audrey A Bolyard, David C Dale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Barth syndrome (BTHS) is an X-linked disease characterized by defective remodeling of phospholipid side chains in mitochondrial membranes. Major features include neutropenia, dilated cardiomyopathy, motor delay and proximal myopathy, feeding problems, and constitutional growth delay. We conducted this review of neutropenia in BTHS to aid in the diagnosis of this disease, and to improve understanding of both the consequences of neutropenia and the benefits of treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30431463/mechanisms-of-leukemic-transformation-in-congenital-neutropenia
#16
Daniel C Link
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The development of a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in patients with congenital neutropenia is now the major cause of mortality. Treatment options are limited and there are no effective prevention strategies. This review focuses on mechanisms of leukemic transformation in severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), the two most common types of congenital neutropenia. RECENT FINDINGS: AML/MDS that develops in the setting of congenital neutropenia has distinct molecular features...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30407218/the-role-of-cxcr2-in-acute-inflammatory-responses-and-its-antagonists-as-anti-inflammatory-therapeutics
#17
Xiaoyu Zhang, Rongxia Guo, Hiroto Kambara, Fengxia Ma, Hongbo R Luo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: CXCR2 is key stimulant of immune cell migration and recruitment, especially of neutrophils. Alleviating excessive neutrophil accumulation and infiltration could prevent prolonged tissue damage in inflammatory disorders. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the role of CXCR2 in regulating neutrophil migration and the use of CXCR2 antagonists for therapeutic benefit in inflammatory disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have provided new insights into how CXCR2 signaling regulates hematopoietic cell mobilization and function in both health and disease...
November 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30394900/the-clinical-consequences-of-neutrophil-priming
#18
Katja L Vogt, Charlotte Summers, Alison M Condliffe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neutrophils priming has been long studied in vitro. Recent studies describe it in vivo. In pathophysiological conditions, complex, heterogeneous characteristics of priming are described in the last few years. RECENT FINDINGS: Priming can occur systemically when insults such as sepsis or trauma result in an array of circulating mediators and circulating primed neutrophils seem to exert detrimental effects either directly, or indirectly by interacting with other cells, thereby contributing to the development of organ dysfunction...
November 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30281037/towards-increasing-shelf-life-and-haemostatic-potency-of-stored-platelet-concentrates
#19
Shailaja Hegde, Huzoor Akbar, Yi Zheng, Jose A Cancelas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Platelet transfusion is a widely used therapy in treating or preventing bleeding and haemorrhage in patients with thrombocytopenia or trauma. Compared with the relative ease of platelet transfusion, current practice for the storage of platelets is inefficient, costly and relatively unsafe, with platelets stored at room temperature (RT) for upto 5-7 days. RECENT FINDINGS: During storage, especially at cold temperatures, platelets undergo progressive and deleterious changes, collectively termed the 'platelet storage lesion', which decrease their haemostatic function and posttransfusion survival...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30281036/restoring-antiviral-immunity-with-adoptive-transfer-of-ex-vivo-generated-t-cells
#20
Edoardo Migliori, Mark Chang, Pawel Muranski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Latent viruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and adenovirus (ADV) often reactivate in immunocompromised patients, contributing to poor clinical outcomes. A rapid reconstitution of antiviral responses via adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells (VSTs) can prevent or eradicate even refractory infections. Here, we evaluate this strategy and the associated methodological, manufacturing and clinical advances. RECENT FINDINGS: From the early pioneering but cumbersome efforts to isolate CMV-specific T cell clones, new approaches and techniques have been developed to provide quicker, safer and broader-aimed ex-vivo antigen-specific cells...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
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