James Ropa, Wouter Van't Hof
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review classic and emerging uses of umbilical cord blood and highlight strategies to improve its utility, focusing on selection of the appropriate units and cell types for the intended applications. RECENT LITERATURE: Recent studies have shown advancements in cord blood cell utility in a variety of cellular therapies and have made strides in elucidating manners to select the best units for therapy and target new ways to improve the various cell subpopulations for their respective applications...
April 5, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Vikram R Paralkar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are transcribed within nucleoli from rDNA repeats by RNA Polymerase I (Pol I). There is variation in rRNA transcription rates across the hematopoietic tree, and leukemic blast cells have prominent nucleoli, indicating abundant ribosome biogenesis. The mechanisms underlying these variations are poorly understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize findings of rDNA binding and Pol I regulation by hematopoietic transcription factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Our group recently used custom genome assemblies optimized for human and mouse rDNA mapping to map nearly 2200 ChIP-Seq datasets for nearly 250 factors to rDNA, allowing us to identify conserved occupancy patterns for multiple transcription factors...
April 3, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Nora Butta, Dianne E van der Wal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Loss of surface sialic acid by neuraminidases is known as 'desialylation'. Platelets are desialylated in bacterial or viral infections, during storage, senescence, various mutations, platelet auto antibodies, hemostasis and shear stress. In this review the recent literature on the different sialic acid capped glycan structures will be covered as well as platelet desialylation in inherited glycan disorders and induced by external neuraminidases. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuraminidases are released from platelet intracellular stores and translocated to the platelet surface...
March 22, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Merav Socolovsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent work reveals that cell cycle duration and structure are remodeled in lock-step with distinct stages of erythroid differentiation. These cell cycle features have regulatory roles in differentiation, beyond the generic function of increasing cell number. RECENT FINDINGS: Developmental progression through the early erythroid progenitor stage (known as colony-forming-erythroid, or 'CFU-e') is characterized by gradual shortening of G1 phase of the cycle...
February 19, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Victor Emmanuel Brett, Francoise Dignat George, Chloe James
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to synthesize recent insights into the roles and importance of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) as indicators of the severity, progression, and prognosis of vascular-related diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have identified elevated counts of CECs in pathological conditions, notably inflammatory or cardiovascular diseases such as acute myocardial infarction and heart failure, underscoring their potential as sensitive indicators of disease...
February 16, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Naomi Gunawardena, Stella T Chou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are an attractive source to generate in-vitro-derived blood for use as transfusable and reagent red cells. We review recent advancements in the field and the remaining limitations for clinical use. RECENT FINDINGS: For iPSC-derived red blood cell (RBC) generation, recent work has optimized culture conditions to omit feeder cells, enhance red cell maturation, and produce cells that mimic fetal or adult-type RBCs...
February 14, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Rick Mathews, Monica T Hinds, Khanh P Nguyen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent advances in developing targeted diagnostics for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and unaddressed knowledge gaps in patient management. Without addressing these critical data needs, the morbidity in VTE patients will persist. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies investigating plasma protein profiles in VTE patients have identified key diagnostic targets to address the currently unmet need for low-cost, confirmatory, point-of-care VTE diagnostics...
February 13, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Alexis Leonard, Mitchell J Weiss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gene therapy for sickle cell disease (SCD) is advancing rapidly, with two transformative products recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and numerous others under study. All current gene therapy protocols require ex vivo modification of autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, several SCD-related problems impair HSC collection, including a stressed and damaged bone marrow, potential cytotoxicity by the major therapeutic drug hydroxyurea, and inability to use granulocyte colony stimulating factor, which can precipitate severe vaso-occlusive events...
February 12, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Shilpa Kuttikrishnan, Kirti S Prabhu, Abdul Q Khan, Shahab Uddin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytokine-mediated signaling pathways, including JAK/STAT, PI3K/AKT, and Ras/MAPK pathways, play an important role in the process of erythropoiesis. These pathways are involved in the survival, proliferation, and differentiation function of erythropoiesis. RECENT FINDINGS: The JAK/STAT pathway controls erythroid progenitor differentiation, proliferation, and survival. The PI3K/AKT signaling cascade facilitates erythroid progenitor survival, proliferation, and final differentiation...
February 8, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Mark J Koury, Daniel J Hausrath
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the last century, the diseases associated with macrocytic anemia have been changing with more patients currently having hematological diseases including malignancies and myelodysplastic syndrome. The intracellular mechanisms underlying the development of anemia with macrocytosis can help in understanding normal erythropoiesis. Adaptations to these diseases involving erythroid progenitor and precursor cells lead to production of fewer but larger red blood cells, and understanding these mechanisms can provide information for possible treatments...
February 8, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Katsue Suzuki-Inoue, Nagaharu Tsukiji
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Platelets are essential for hemostasis and are also vital in lymphatic and lung development and the maintenance of vascular integrity. Platelet activation receptor C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) and its endogenous ligand podoplanin (PDPN) in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and other cells regulate these processes. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the roles of platelet CLEC-2 and PDPN. This review also focuses on discussing the underlying mechanisms by which platelet CLEC-2 and PDPN mediate blood/lymphatic separation...
February 7, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Sonia Aguila, Rocio Gonzalez-Conejero, Constantino Martinez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Thrombo-inflammation is a multifaceted pathologic process involving various cells such as platelets, neutrophils, and monocytes. In recent years, microRNAs have been consistently implicated as regulators of these cells. RECENT FINDINGS: MicroRNAs play a regulatory role in several platelet receptors that have recently been identified as contributing to thrombo-inflammation and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. In addition, a growing body of evidence has shown that several intracellular and extracellular microRNAs directly promote NET formation...
January 25, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Sarah E Shelton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes innovations in vascular microphysiological systems (MPS) and discusses the themes that have emerged from recent works. RECENT FINDINGS: Vascular MPS are increasing in complexity and ability to replicate tissue. Many labs use vascular MPS to study transport phenomena such as analyzing endothelial barrier function. Beyond vascular permeability, these models are also being used for pharmacological studies, including drug distribution and toxicity modeling...
January 19, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Marlies P Rossmann, James Palis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we present an overview of recent studies of primitive erythropoiesis, focusing on advances in deciphering its embryonic origin, defining species-specific differences in its developmental regulation, and better understanding the molecular and metabolic pathways involved in terminal differentiation. RECENT FINDINGS: Single-cell transcriptomics combined with state-of-the-art lineage tracing approaches in unperturbed murine embryos have yielded new insights concerning the origin of the first (primitive) erythroid cells that arise from mesoderm-derived progenitors...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Stephanie Halene
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
(no author information available yet)
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March 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Elizabeth A Griffiths
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myelodysplastic neoplasms (MDS) are diseases of stem cell aging associated with complications from inadequate hematopoiesis (red cells, neutrophils and platelets) and variable risk for transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Those with low-risk disease also suffer and die from MDS-related complications. Among the most challenging is development of anemia and transfusion dependence, which impacts quality of life and is associated with reduced survival. Appreciating and measuring the quality-of-life impact, preventing (if possible), treating, and managing the complications from anemia in MDS are of critical importance...
March 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Tal Bacharach, Nathali Kaushansky, Liran I Shlush
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Both aging and reduced diversity at the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) level are ubiquitous. What remains unclear is why some individuals develop clonal hematopoiesis (CH), and why does CH due to specific mutations occur in specific individuals. Much like aging, reduced diversity of HSCs is a complex phenotype shaped by numerous factors (germline & environment). The purpose of the current review is to discuss the role of two other age-related ubiquitous processes that might contribute to the dynamics and characteristics of losing HSC diversity and the evolution of CH...
December 18, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
Ann-Kathrin Eisfeld
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize different contributors to survival disparities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. The focus is set on African-American (hereafter referred to as Black) patients, with separate consideration of self-reported race and ancestry. It aims to also highlight the interconnectivity of the different features that impact on despair survival. RECENT FINDINGS: The main themes in the literature covered in this article include the impact of social deprivation, clinical trial enrollment and biobanking, structural racism and ancestry-associated differences in genetic features on survival outcomes...
December 8, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
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