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Adipose-Derived Stem Cells' Secretome Attenuates Lesion Size and Parasite Loading in Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania Major in Mice.

BACKGROUND: Stem cell-derived secretome (SE) released into the extracellular space contributes to tissue repair. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of isolated secretome (SE) from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) on Leishmania major ( L. major ) lesions in BALB/c mice.

METHODS: This experimental study was conducted at Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences (Ahvaz, Iran) in 2021. Forty female BALB/c mice were infected with stationary phase promastigotes through intradermal injection in the bottom of their tail and randomly divided into four groups (n=10 per group). The mice were given SE (20 mg/mL), either alone or in combination with Glucantime (GC, 20 mg/mL/Kg), meglumine antimoniate (20 mg/mL/Kg) for the GC group, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for the control group. After eight weeks, the lesion size, histopathology, the levels of Interleukin 10 (IL-10), and Interleukin 12 (IL-12) were assessed. For the comparison of values between groups, the parametric one-way ANOVA was used to assess statistical significance.

RESULTS: At the end of the experiment, the mice that received SE had smaller lesions (4.56±0.83 mm versus 3.62±0.59 mm, P=0.092), lower levels of IL-10 (66.5±9.7 pg/mL versus 285.4±25.2 pg/mL, P<0.001), and higher levels of IL-12 (152.2±14.2 pg/mL versus 24.2±4.4 pg/mL, P<0.001) than the control. Histopathology findings revealed that mice treated with SE had a lower parasite burden in lesions and spleen than the control group.

CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated that ADSC-derived SE could protect mice infected with L. major against leishmaniasis.

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