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The burden of Clostridioides difficile infections in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific: A narrative review.

Anaerobe 2024 Februrary 8
BACKGROUND: Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is well-documented in Europe and North America to be a common cause of healthcare-associated gastrointestinal tract infections. In contrast, C difficile infection (CDI) is infrequently reported in literature from Asia, which may reflect a lack of clinician awareness. We conducted a narrative review to better understand CDI burden in Asia.

METHODS: We searched the PubMed database for English language articles related to C difficile, Asia, epidemiology, and molecular characteristics (eg, ribotype, antimicrobial resistance).

RESULTS: Fifty-eight articles that met eligibility criteria were included. C difficile prevalence ranged from 7.1% to 45.1 % of hospitalized patients with diarrhea, and toxigenic strains among all C difficile in these patients ranged from 68.2% to 91.9 % in China and from 39.0% to 60.0 % outside of China. Widespread C difficile ribotypes were RT017, RT014/020, RT012, and RT002. Recurrence in patients with CDI ranged from 3.0% to 17.2 %. Patients with CDI typically had prior antimicrobial use recently. High rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, and erythromycin were frequently reported.

CONCLUSION: The regional CDI burden in Asia is still incompletely documented, seemingly due to low awareness and limited laboratory testing. Despite this apparent under recognition, the current CDI burden highlights the need for broader surveillance and for application of preventative measures against CDI in Asia.

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