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Anaerobe

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769104/challenges-of-next-generation-sequencing-targeting-anaerobes
#1
REVIEW
Georg Conrads, Mohamed M H Abdelbary
Next-generation sequencing allows for investigating the composition of microbiomes that are associated with infection (clinical microbiology) or dysbiosis (microbial ecology). The most commonly applied short-read sequencing technologies are Illumina MiSeq/HiSeq and Ion Torrent PGM, however, other platforms that generate long-reads are under way and optimized. A pre-condition for representative results is an appropriate method for contamination-free collection, homogenization, storage of specimens and a subsequent efficient DNA extraction protocol...
February 12, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763675/is-botulism-type-c-transmissible-to-human-by-consumption-of-contaminated-poultry-meat-analysis-of-a-suspect-outbreak-in-french-guyana
#2
Arnaud Martrenchar, Félix Djossou, Cécile Stagnetto, Céline Dupuy, Elodie Brulez, Christiane Attica, Gerald Egmann, Jérome Gruenfeld, Jean-Michel Fontanella, Michel-Robert Popoff
Botulism type C was suspected in a 46-year old man after consumption of sick poultry from a flock where botulism type C was confirmed. The patient developed characteristic signs of botulism, but investigation of biological samples did not confirm the presence of Clostridium botulinum or botulinum toxin. Despite having classical botulism symptoms, the man recovered very quickly. This raises the question of botulism transmission to humans by ingestion of contaminated poultry.
February 11, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753899/native-joint-septic-arthritis-due-to-clostridium-tarantellae
#3
Aurélie Cointe, Gauthier Péan de Ponfilly, Anne-Lise Munier, Marwa Bachir, Hanaa Benmansour, Anne-Claude Crémieux, Marine Forien, Aline Frazier, Elie Krief, Emmanuelle Cambau, Hervé Jacquier
Clostridium is a diverse genus including more than 200 species involved in varied clinical presentations in infectious diseases. Septic arthritis caused by Clostridium sp. are however uncommon. We report here the first septic arthritis due to Clostridium tarantellae, formerly called Eubacterium tarantellae, in a patient under anti-TNF therapy.
February 9, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753898/susceptibility-of-endometrial-isolates-recovered-from-women-with-clinical-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-or-histological-endometritis-to-antimicrobial-agents
#4
Melinda A B Petrina, Lisa A Cosentino, Harold C Wiesenfeld, Toni Darville, Sharon L Hillier
The CDC recommended outpatient treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an intramuscular dose of ceftriaxone plus 14 days of doxycycline, with or without metronidazole. European guidelines (2017) include moxifloxacin plus ceftriaxone as a first line regimen, particularly for women with Mycoplasma genitalium-associated PID. However, the susceptibility of bacteria recovered from the endometrium of women with PID to moxifloxacin is unknown. The in vitro antibiotic susceptibility of facultative and anaerobic bacteria recovered from endometrial biopsy samples were evaluated from 105 women having symptomatic PID and/or histologically confirmed endometritis...
February 9, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738869/finegoldia-magna-causing-intramedullary-thoracic-spinal-cord-abscess-in-an-infant
#5
Sarah Alsubaie, Saeed Dolgum, Khalifa Binkhamis, Ikhlass Alweijri, Amani Bakhshan, Fahad Alzamil
Spinal intramedullary abscesses are rare and potentially devastating lesions. Infection is mostly caused by staphylococci. Anaerobes are rare and often polymicrobial. We report an unusual case of spinal cord intramedullary abscess in a 7-month-old infant with monomicrobial infection due to Finegoldia magna. She was found to have a missed congenital thoracic dermal sinus. The patient was treated with metronidazole and ceftriaxone for 8 weeks, and improvement of the infection was documented. Clinical awareness of patients at risk is crucial for early diagnosis and intervention...
February 7, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738138/isolation-characterization-and-cla-production-potential-of-bifidobacterial-isolates-from-ruminal-fluid-samples-of-murrah-buffaloes
#6
Neeru Jaglan, Sachin Kumar, Prasanta Kumar Choudhury, Bhawna Tyagi, Amrish Kumar Tyagi
In the present study, we investigated the potential of Bifidobacterium spp., isolated from ruminal fluid samples from buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production. A total of 294 isolates were obtained from 86 ruminal fluid samples using Bifidus Selective Medium (BSM) medium, and based on phospoketolase assay, 24 isolates were presumptively confirmed to be Bifidobacterium species. Further, the isolates were confirmed morphologically, biochemically and by PCR assays for genus specific (16s rDNA) and transaldolase genes...
February 6, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716401/high-prevalence-of-division-ii-cfia-positive-isolates-among-blood-stream-bacteroides-fragilis-in-slovenia-as-determined-by-maldi-tof-ms
#7
REVIEW
Samo Jeverica, József Sóki, Manica Mueller Premru, Elizabeth Nagy, Lea Papst
Bacteroides fragilis can be classified into division I (cfiA negative) and division II (cfiA positive) isolates. Division II isolates have a silent chromosomal carbapenemase gene (cfiA) that can become overexpressed by an insertion of a mobile genetic element and thus develop a phenotypic resistance to carbapenems. Aims of our study were (i) to determine the prevalence of B. fragilis division II (cfiA positive) isolates among blood stream and non-blood stream isolates from two major Slovenian tertiary-care hospitals and (ii) to assess its influence on phenotypic resistance to imipenem...
February 1, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703440/molecular-epidemiology-of-clostridioides-previously-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-a-university-hospital-in-minas-gerais-brazil
#8
Amanda Nádia Diniz, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior, Eduardo Garcia Vilela, Henrique Cesar Pereira Figueiredo, Maja Rupnik, Mark H Wilcox, Warren N Fawley, Dominique S Blanc, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva
The molecular epidemiology of 38 non-duplicate toxigenic Clostridioides (previously Clostridium) difficile isolates from inpatients from a hospital in Brazil during a 6-year period (2012-2017) were investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and ribotyping. These isolates were classified into 20 sequence types (ST), six (30%) of which were novel, revealing a high diversity in a single hospital. Classic hypervirulent strains ST1/RT027 and ST11/RT078 were not identified, while ST42 (almost all RT106) was the most common type, being detected in 11 (28...
January 28, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30682434/methodologic-variables-that-impact-growth-of-clostridium-difficile-in-a-broth-culture-medium-without-requirement-for-anaerobic-culture-conditions
#9
LETTER
Jennifer L Cadnum, Curtis J Donskey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30633971/genomic-analysis-of-three-clostridioides-difficile-isolates-from-urban-water-sources
#10
Daniela Numberger, Thomas Riedel, Gayle McEwen, Ulrich Nübel, Martinique Frentrup, Isabel Schober, Boyke Bunk, Cathrin Spröer, Jörg Overmann, Hans-Peter Grossart, Alex D Greenwood
We investigated inflow of a wastewater treatment plant and sediment of an urban lake for the presence of Clostridioides difficile by cultivation and PCR. Among seven colonies we sequenced the complete genomes of three: two non-toxigenic isolates from wastewater and one toxigenic isolate from the urban lake. For all obtained isolates, a close genomic relationship with human-derived isolates was observed.
January 8, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30633970/nexus-between-the-microbial-diversity-level-and-the-stress-tolerance-within-the-biogas-process
#11
Johanna Klang, Ulrich Szewzyk, Daniel Bock, Susanne Theuerl
To investigate whether there is a nexus between the microbial diversity level (taxonomic, functional and ecological) and the stress tolerance potential of the microbial community, the impact of different ammonium sources was evaluated. Therefore reactors adapted either to the anaerobic digestions of sugar beet silage or maize silage (SBS/MS) were supplemented with animal manure (M) or ammonium carbonate (A). The results showed that increasing concentrations of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) were not the only reason for community changes: the bacterial community in the reactors given animal manure became more similar over time compared to the reactors given ammonium carbonate...
January 8, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30630038/phenotypic-molecular-and-genomic-characterization-of-actinobaculum-suis-isolated-from-swine-in-brazil
#12
Cristina Román Amigo, Luisa Zanolli Moreno, Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira, Vasco Túlio de Moura Gomes, André Pegoraro Poor, Carolina Helena de Oliveira, Beatriz Martins Parra, Ana Paula Santos Silva, Andrea Micke Moreno
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are considered one of the most important diseases of sows due to its close relationship with reproductive problems such as reduced litter size, increase in the rate of return to estrous, vulvar discharge, abortion, mastitis and anestrus. Actinobaculum suis is one of the main agents involved in porcine urinary tract infection and is responsible for the most severe and fatal cases in sows. In the present report, 23 A. suis strains isolated from a sow and boars in Brazil were identified by PCR and further characterized by broth microdilution, molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism (SE-AFLP), and whole-genome sequencing...
January 7, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30630037/clostridium-difficile-isolates-derived-from-czech-horses-are-resistant-to-enrofloxacin-cluster-to-clades-1-and-5-and-ribotype-033-predominates
#13
Zuzana Kecerova, Alois Cizek, Otakar Nyc, Marcela Krutova
Clostridium difficile has been recovered from the faeces of several animal species as well as horses. Between April 2015 and October 2016, 213 samples of faeces from non-hospitalized (n = 138) and hospitalized horses (n = 75) were investigated and eighteen C. difficile isolates were cultured using an enrichment method. Sixteen C. difficile positive samples were identified from hospitalised horses (p˂0.01). Molecular typing revealed seven ribotypes and sequence types (RT033/ST11 n = 8, 44.4%; RT081/ST9 n = 4, 22...
January 7, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30615946/pseudobutyrivibrio-xylanivorans-adhesion-to-epithelial-cells
#14
Diego Javier Grilli, Maria Eugenia Mansilla, María Cecilia Giménez, Noelia Sohaefer, María Soledad Ruiz, Mauricio R Terebiznik, Miguel Sosa, Graciela Nora Arenas
The ruminal bacteria Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans strain 2 (P. xylanivorans 2), that mediates the digestion of plant fiber, is considered an attractive candidate for probiotics. Adherence to the epithelium of the digestive tract of the host is one of the major requirements for probiotics. In this study, we assessed the adhesion of P. xylanivorans 2 to SW480 cells and characterized this process utilizing multiple microscopy approaches. Our results indicate that a multiplicity of infection of 200 CFU/cell allows the highest bacteria to cell binding ratio, with a lower percentage of auto-agglutination events...
January 4, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30615945/response-to-methodologic-variables-that-impact-growth-of-clostridium-difficile-in-a-broth-culture-medium-without-requirement-for-anaerobic-culture-conditions
#15
LETTER
Mairéad C Connor, John W McGrath, Geoff McMullan, Nikki Marks, Derek J Fairley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2019: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30576791/evaluation-of-protective-effect-of-lactobacillus-acidophilus-la-5-on-toxicity-and-colonization-of-clostridium-difficile-in-human-epithelial-cells-in-vitro
#16
A Najarian, S Sharif, M W Griffiths
Clostridium difficile infection is a range of toxin - mediated intestinal diseases that is often acquired in hospitals and small communities in developed countries. The main virulence factors of C. difficile are two exotoxins, toxin A and toxin B, which damage epithelial cells and manifest as colonic inflammation and mild to severe diarrhea. Inhibiting C. difficile adherence, colonization, and reducing its toxin production could substantially minimize its pathogenicity and lead to faster recovery from the disease...
December 18, 2018: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30557657/maldi-tof-ms-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-anaerobiospirillum-succiniciproducens-an-unusual-causative-agent-of-bacteraemia-in-humans-two-case-reports-and-literature-review
#17
REVIEW
Marina Alguacil-Guillen, Luis Ramos-Ruperto, Juan Carlos Ramos Ramos, Angel Robles-Marhuenda, Julio García-Rodriguez, Jesús Mingorance, María Pilar Romero-Gómez
Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens is a gram-negative anaerobic spiral rod which is part of the normal flora of dogs and cats and can produce bacteraemia and diarrhoea in humans. In this report we describe two cases of bacteraemia caused by A. succiniciproducens which was successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We present a comprehensive literature review of 48 cases of A. succiniciproducens bacteraemia in which we describe previous underlying conditions, clinical presentations, identification methodology and antibiotic susceptibility data...
December 14, 2018: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30550807/increasing-prevalence-of-the-epidemic-ribotype-106-in-healthcare-facility-associated-and-community-associated-clostridioides-difficile-infection
#18
Loreto Suárez-Bode, Rubén Barrón, José L Pérez, Ana Mena
Clostridioides difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and antibiotics associated diarrhea, but it is also an increasingly common cause of community diarrhea. In recent years we have observed a progressive increase in the incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) both at the hospital and community setting that could be explained by the dynamic epidemiology of C. difficile. The present study analyzes changes in the epidemiology of CDI for two years comparing healthcare facility-associated (HCFA) and community-associated (CA) CDI epidemiology, observed in a single laboratory setting...
December 11, 2018: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30529715/diversity-analysis-of-intestinal-microflora-between-healthy-and-diarrheal-neonatal-piglets-from-the-same-litter-in-different-regions
#19
Chunsheng Han, Yimin Dai, Baosheng Liu, Linkang Wang, Jingqi Wang, Jinhua Zhang
Though the problem of neonatal piglet diarrhea is well known, the differences in the bacterial diversity and community composition between healthy and diarrheal piglets are still unknown. We investigated these differences in neonatal piglets from Jiangxi Province, China. Healthy (H, n = 20) and diarrheal (D, n = 20) piglets were selected from six regions. The fecal microbial communities were analyzed by sequencing the V3V4 region of 16S rRNA gene. We found the ratio of major phyla (Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria) was >99% of 7 phyla...
December 7, 2018: Anaerobe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30521856/bezlotoxumab-use-as-adjunctive-therapy-with-the-third-fecal-microbiota-transplant-in-refractory-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-colitis-a-case-report-and-concise-literature-review
#20
Ahmad Kaako, Mohammad Al-Amer, Yazan Abdeen
Clostridium difficile is the most commonly reported pathogen to cause nosocomial infections in the United States with a high burden affecting morbidity, mortality and healthcare expenditure. The use of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) is one of the current standard therapies for recurrent C. difficile infection (CDIr). One emerging promising approach is the use of monoclonal antibodies that bind to and neutralize C. difficile toxins such as Bezlotoxumab. We present the first case report on combining the third FMT with bezlotoxumab after the failure of standard-of-care antibiotics and two trials of FMT alone, with subsequent success in preventing the recurrence of refractory CDI for 12 weeks following treatment...
December 3, 2018: Anaerobe
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