Yumi Numata, Yuichiro Kikuchi, Toru Sato, Kazuko Okamoto-Shibayama, Yutaro Ando, Yuri Miyai-Murai, Eitoyo Kokubu, Kazuyuki Ishihara
OBJECTIVE: Treponema denticola has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. Previously, we reported that the potential transcriptional regulator TDE_0259 (oxtR1) is upregulated in the bacteriocin ABC transporter gene-deficient mutant. OxtR1 may regulate genes to adapt to environmental conditions during colonization; however, the exact role of the gene in T. denticola has not been reported. Therefore, we investigated its function using an oxtR1-deficient mutant...
April 11, 2024: Anaerobe
Sergio Ruiz-Saavedra, Nuria Salazar, Adolfo Suárez, Ylenia Diaz, Carmen González Del Rey, Sonia González, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán
OBJECTIVES: We investigated potential relationships among initial lesions of the intestinal mucosa, fecal enzymatic activities and microbiota profiles. METHODS: Fecal samples from 54 volunteers were collected after recruitment among individuals participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program in our region (Northern Spain) or attending for consultation due to clinical symptoms; intestinal mucosa samples were resected during colonoscopy. Enzymatic activities were determined in fecal supernatants by a semi-quantitative method...
April 11, 2024: Anaerobe
F Lanzillo, S Pisacane, F Raganati, M E Russo, P Salatino, A Marzocchella
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of medium composition on CO fermentation by Clostridium carboxidivorans. The focus was to reduce the medium cost preserving acceptable levels of solvent production.. METHODS: Yeast extract (YE) concentration was set in the range of 0-3 g/L. Different reducing agents were investigated, including cysteine-HCl 0.6 g/L, pure cysteine 0.6 g/L, sodium sulphide (Na2S) 0.6 g/L, cysteine-sodium sulphide 0...
April 11, 2024: Anaerobe
Jiaxin Liu, Biyan Wen, Yaoxing Huang, Guiqing Deng, Qingqing Yan, Lin Jia
OBJECTIVES: Acute lung injury is a critical complication of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The gut microbiota and its metabolites play an important role in SAP development and may provide new targets for AP-associated lung injury. Based on the ability to reverse AP injury, we proposed that Clostridium butyricum may reduce the potential for AP-associated lung injury by modulating with intestinal microbiota and related metabolic pathways. METHODS: An AP disease model was established in mice and treated with C...
April 11, 2024: Anaerobe
O U Lan-Xin, Y E Bijin, Sun Mingfei, Qi Nanshan, Li Juan, Lv Minna, Lin Xuhui, Cai Haiming, Hu Junjing, Song Yongle, Chen Xiangjie, Zhu Yibin, Yin Lijun, Zhang Jianfei, Liao Shenquan, Zhang Haoji
Clostridium perfringens, a Gram-positive bacterium, causes intestinal diseases in humans and livestock through its toxins, related to alpha toxin (CPA), beta toxin (CPB), C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), epsilon toxin (ETX), Iota toxin (ITX), and necrotic enteritis B-like toxin (NetB). These toxins disrupt intestinal barrier, leading to various cell death mechanisms such as necrosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis. Additionally, non-toxin factors like adhesins and degradative enzymes contribute to virulence by enhancing colonization and survival of C...
April 10, 2024: Anaerobe
Marion Saunier, Louis-Charles Fortier, Olga Soutourina
Interactions of bacteria with their viruses named bacteriophages or phages shape the bacterial genome evolution and contribute to the diversity of phages. RNAs have emerged as key components of several anti-phage defense systems in bacteria including CRISPR-Cas, toxin-antitoxin and abortive infection. Frequent association with mobile genetic elements and interplay between different anti-phage defense systems are largely discussed. Newly discovered defense systems such as retrons and CBASS include RNA components...
April 5, 2024: Anaerobe
Hailee N Nerber, Joseph A Sorg
The small acid-soluble proteins are found in all endospore-forming organisms and are a major component of spores. Through their DNA binding capabilities, the SASPs shield the DNA from outside insults (e.g., UV and genotoxic chemicals). The absence of the major SASPs results in spores with reduced viability when exposed to UV light and, in at least one case, the inability to complete sporulation. While the SASPs have been characterized for decades, some evidence suggests that using newer technologies to revisit the roles of the SASPs could reveal novel functions in spore regulation...
April 4, 2024: Anaerobe
Isaura Rigo, Mary K Young, Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Feifan Xu, Girija Ramakrishnan, Farha Naz, William A Petri, Gregory R Madden
Late anti-toxin-B humoral immunity acquired after treatment is important for preventing recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. We prospectively-measured anti-toxin-B IgG and neutralization titers at diagnosis as potential early predictors of recurrence. High anti-toxin-B-IgG/neutralizing antibodies were associated with short-lasting protection within 6-weeks, however, no difference in recurrence risk was observed by 90-days post-infection.
March 27, 2024: Anaerobe
Laura M Cersosimo, Jay N Worley, Lynn Bry
Spore-forming pathogens have a unique capacity to thrive in diverse environments, and with temporal persistence afforded through their ability to sporulate. Their prevalence in diverse ecosystems requires a One Health approach to identify critical reservoirs and outbreak-associated transmission chains, given their capacity to freely move across soils, waterways, foodstuffs and as commensals or infecting pathogens in human and animal populations. Among anaerobic spore-formers, genomic resources for pathogens including C...
March 27, 2024: Anaerobe
Jourdan E Lakes, Jessica L Ferrell, Mark A Berhow, Michael D Flythe
Amino acid-fermenting Clostridia have undesirable effects in agricultural systems, which can be mitigated by antibiotics, but resistance necessitates alternatives. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of cannabidiol on growth and ammonia inhibition of five agriculturally relevant Clostridia: Clostridium sporogenes, Peptostreptococcusspp., Clostridioides difficile, Acetoanaerobium sticklandii, and Clostridium aminophilum.
March 25, 2024: Anaerobe
Deiziane V S Costa, Nathalie V Pham, Andrea V Loureiro, Suemin E Yang, Brian W Behm, Cirle A Warren
OBJECTIVES: In the US, Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) is the 8th leading cause for hospital readmission and 7th for mortality among all gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Here, we investigated GI dysfunction post-CDI in human and mice post-acute infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2020 to July 2021, we reviewed the clinical records of 67 patients referred to the UVA Complicated C. difficile clinic for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) eligibility...
March 23, 2024: Anaerobe
Elie Bou Sanayeh, Mark Tawfik, Marina Makram, Georges Khattar, Faris Qaqish, Sudeep Acharya, Janet Farag, Michel Chalhoub, Allison Glaser
Hungatella species, including Hungatella hathewayi and Hungatella effluvii, previously identified as part of the Clostridium genus, are anaerobic bacteria primarily residing in the gut microbiome, with infrequent implications in human infections. This article presents the case of an 87-year-old Asian male admitted for a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state with septic shock secondary to Hungatella hathewayi bacteremia originating from acute appendicitis. Remarkably, the bacterium was detected in the blood 48 hours before the emergence of clinical and radiographic evidence of acute appendicitis...
March 21, 2024: Anaerobe
G Brett Moreau, Farha Naz, William A Petri
OBJECTIVES: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading hospital-acquired infection in North America. While previous work on fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a highly effective treatment for CDI, has focused on colonization resistance mounted against C. difficile by FMT-delivered commensals, the effects of FMT on host gene expression are relatively unexplored. This study aims to identify transcriptional changes associated with FMT, particularly changes associated with protective immune responses...
March 21, 2024: Anaerobe
Girija Ramakrishnan, Mary K Young, Uma Nayak, Isaura Rigo, Andrea S Marrs, Carol A Gilchrist, Brian W Behm, Gregory R Madden, William A Petri
OBJECTIVES: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is characterized by neutrophilia in blood, with a high leukocyte count accompanying severe infection. In this study, we characterized peripheral blood neutrophil activation and maturity in CDI by (i) developing a method to phenotype stored neutrophils for disease-related developmental alterations and (ii) assessing neutrophil-associated biomarkers. METHODS: We stored fixed leukocytes from blood collected within 24 h of diagnosis from a cohort of hospitalized patients with acute CDI...
March 19, 2024: Anaerobe
Alfredo Maldonado-Barrueco, Francisco Moreno-Ramos, Beatriz Díaz-Pollán, Belén Loeches-Yagüe, Alicia Rico-Nieto, Julio García-Rodríguez, Guillermo Ruiz-Carrascoso
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to assess the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the prevalence, relative incidence (RI), incidence density (ID), ratio of rate incidence (RRI), rate of incidence density (RID), and relative risks (RR) of healthcare-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) as well as its correlation with the antibiotic consumption. METHODS: Demographic and analytical data of adult patients exhibiting diarrhoea and testing positive for C. difficile were systematically collected from a tertiary care hospital in Madrid...
February 28, 2024: Anaerobe
David Nygren, Lisa Wasserstrom, Gustav Torisson, Karin Holm
Tonsillar Fusobacterium necrophorum PCR Ct-values were higher in participants with asymptomatic tonsillar carriage than patients with pharyngeal infections. However, Ct-values were not associated with severity of disease or predictive of development of complications and hence lacked clinical usefulness. The reporting of F. necrophorum Ct-values in clinical samples is not recommended.
February 16, 2024: Anaerobe
Bakhtiyar Mahmood, Károly Péter Sárvári, Laszló Orosz, Elisabeth Nagy, József Sóki
OBJECTIVES: This study screened the prevalence of rare β-lactamase genes in Bacteroides fragilis group strains from clinical specimens and normal microbiota and examined the genetic properties of the strains carrying these genes. METHODS: blaHGD1, blaOXA347, cblA, crxA, and pbbA were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in collections of Bacteroides strains from clinical (n = 406) and fecal (n = 184) samples. To examine the genetic backgrounds of the samples, end-point PCR, FT-IR, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used...
February 13, 2024: Anaerobe
Chenlin Hu, Kevin W Garey
Microscopic technologies including light and fluorescent, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cryo-electron microscopy have been widely utilized to visualize Clostridioides difficile at the molecular, cellular, community, and structural biology level. This comprehensive review summarizes the microscopy tools (fluorescent and reporter system) in their use to study different aspects of C. difficile life cycle and virulence (sporulation, germination) or applications (detection of C...
February 8, 2024: Anaerobe
Frederick J Angulo, Canna Ghia, Mark A Fletcher, Egemen Ozbilgili, Graciela Morales
BACKGROUND: Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is well-documented in Europe and North America to be a common cause of healthcare-associated gastrointestinal tract infections. In contrast, C difficile infection (CDI) is infrequently reported in literature from Asia, which may reflect a lack of clinician awareness. We conducted a narrative review to better understand CDI burden in Asia. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database for English language articles related to C difficile, Asia, epidemiology, and molecular characteristics (eg, ribotype, antimicrobial resistance)...
February 7, 2024: Anaerobe
Fériel Bouzid, Imen Gtif, Salma Charfeddine, Leila Abid, Najla Kharrat
BACKGROUND: Methanogenic archaea are a minor component of human oral microbiota. Due to their relatively low abundance, the detection of these neglected microorganisms is challenging. OBJECTIVE: This study concerns the presence of methanogens in salivary samples collected from Tunisian adults to evaluate their prevalence and burden using a polyphasic molecular approach. METHODS: A total of 43 saliva samples were included. Metagenomic and standard 16S rRNA sequencing were performed as an initial screening to detect the presence of methanogens in the oral microbiota of Tunisian adults...
February 1, 2024: Anaerobe
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