G Brett Moreau, Farha Naz, William A Petri
OBJECTIVES: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading hospital-acquired infection in North America. While previous work on fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a highly effective treatment for CDI, has focused on colonization resistance mounted against C. difficile by FMT-delivered commensals, the effects of FMT on host gene expression are relatively unexplored. This study aims to identify transcriptional changes associated with FMT, particularly changes associated with protective immune responses...
March 21, 2024: Anaerobe
Girija Ramakrishnan, Mary K Young, Uma Nayak, Isaura Rigo, Andrea S Marrs, Carol A Gilchrist, Brian W Behm, Gregory R Madden, William A Petri
OBJECTIVES: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is characterized by neutrophilia in blood, with a high leukocyte count accompanying severe infection. In this study, we characterized peripheral blood neutrophil activation and maturity in CDI by (i) developing a method to phenotype stored neutrophils for disease-related developmental alterations and (ii) assessing neutrophil-associated biomarkers. METHODS: We stored fixed leukocytes from blood collected within 24 h of diagnosis from a cohort of hospitalized patients with acute CDI...
March 19, 2024: Anaerobe
Alfredo Maldonado-Barrueco, Francisco Moreno-Ramos, Beatriz Díaz-Pollán, Belén Loeches-Yagüe, Alicia Rico-Nieto, Julio García-Rodríguez, Guillermo Ruiz-Carrascoso
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to assess the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the prevalence, relative incidence (RI), incidence density (ID), ratio of rate incidence (RRI), rate of incidence density (RID), and relative risks (RR) of healthcare-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) as well as its correlation with the antibiotic consumption. METHODS: Demographic and analytical data of adult patients exhibiting diarrhoea and testing positive for C. difficile were systematically collected from a tertiary care hospital in Madrid...
February 28, 2024: Anaerobe
David Nygren, Lisa Wasserstrom, Gustav Torisson, Karin Holm
Tonsillar Fusobacterium necrophorum PCR Ct-values were higher in participants with asymptomatic tonsillar carriage than patients with pharyngeal infections. However, Ct-values were not associated with severity of disease or predictive of development of complications and hence lacked clinical usefulness. The reporting of F. necrophorum Ct-values in clinical samples is not recommended.
February 16, 2024: Anaerobe
Bakhtiyar Mahmood, Károly Péter Sárvári, Laszló Orosz, Elisabeth Nagy, József Sóki
OBJECTIVES: This study screened the prevalence of rare β-lactamase genes in Bacteroides fragilis group strains from clinical specimens and normal microbiota and examined the genetic properties of the strains carrying these genes. METHODS: blaHGD1, blaOXA347, cblA, crxA, and pbbA were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in collections of Bacteroides strains from clinical (n = 406) and fecal (n = 184) samples. To examine the genetic backgrounds of the samples, end-point PCR, FT-IR, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used...
February 13, 2024: Anaerobe
Chenlin Hu, Kevin W Garey
Microscopic technologies including light and fluorescent, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cryo-electron microscopy have been widely utilized to visualize Clostridioides difficile at the molecular, cellular, community, and structural biology level. This comprehensive review summarizes the microscopy tools (fluorescent and reporter system) in their use to study different aspects of C. difficile life cycle and virulence (sporulation, germination) or applications (detection of C...
February 8, 2024: Anaerobe
Frederick J Angulo, Canna Ghia, Mark A Fletcher, Egemen Ozbilgili, Graciela Morales
BACKGROUND: Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is well-documented in Europe and North America to be a common cause of healthcare-associated gastrointestinal tract infections. In contrast, C difficile infection (CDI) is infrequently reported in literature from Asia, which may reflect a lack of clinician awareness. We conducted a narrative review to better understand CDI burden in Asia. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database for English language articles related to C difficile, Asia, epidemiology, and molecular characteristics (eg, ribotype, antimicrobial resistance)...
February 7, 2024: Anaerobe
Fériel Bouzid, Imen Gtif, Salma Charfeddine, Leila Abid, Najla Kharrat
BACKGROUND: Methanogenic archaea are a minor component of human oral microbiota. Due to their relatively low abundance, the detection of these neglected microorganisms is challenging. OBJECTIVE: This study concerns the presence of methanogens in salivary samples collected from Tunisian adults to evaluate their prevalence and burden using a polyphasic molecular approach. METHODS: A total of 43 saliva samples were included. Metagenomic and standard 16S rRNA sequencing were performed as an initial screening to detect the presence of methanogens in the oral microbiota of Tunisian adults...
February 1, 2024: Anaerobe
Jae Hyun Shin, Glenn Tillotson, Tiffany N MacKenzie, Cirle Warren, Hannah M Wexler, EllieJC Goldstein
Microbial communities play a significant role in maintaining ecosystems in a healthy homeostasis. Presently, in the human gastrointestinal tract, there are certain taxonomic groups of importance, though there is no single species that plays a keystone role. Bacteroides spp. are known to be major players in the maintenance of eubiosis in the human gastrointestinal tract. Here we review the critical role that Bacteroides play in the human gut, their potential pathogenic role outside of the gut, and their various methods of adapting to the environment, with a focus on data for B...
January 10, 2024: Anaerobe
Naoki Watanabe, Tomohisa Watari, Yoshihito Otsuka, Naoto Hosokawa, Kazufumi Yamagata, Miyuki Fujioka
OBJECTIVES: Ruminococcus gnavus is a rare human pathogen, and clinical data on R. gnavus infection are insufficient. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of R. gnavus infections. METHODS: This study included 13 cases of bacteremia and three cases of non-bacteremia infections caused by R. gnavus. We evaluated the patient data, infection source, clinical outcomes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of R. gnavus isolates for these cases...
January 10, 2024: Anaerobe
Guilherme Guerra Alves, Ronnie Antunes Assis, Victor Santos do Amarante, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Luiz Guilherme Dias Heneine, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to produce and purify Clostridium perfringens type C beta-toxin, sheep anti-beta toxin immunoglobulin G (IgG) and chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY). METHODS: Two methods were used for beta-toxin purification: single-step metal affinity chromatography (MAC) using zinc as a chelator and ion exchange chromatography (IEX). The purified and inactivated beta-toxoids were then administered to sheep and chickens in order to produce IgG and IgY...
December 30, 2023: Anaerobe
Fernando Cobo, Ana Franco-Acosta, Lina Martín-Hita, Javier Rodríguez-Granger, Antonio Sampedro-Martínez, Juan Antonio Reguera-Márquez, José María Navarro-Marí
The aim of this study was to describe the in vitro activity of delafloxacin against 230 anaerobic isolates and compare it with the activity of other antimicrobials used against infections caused by anaerobic microorganisms. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were lower for delafloxacin than for all other antibiotics tested with the exception of piperacillin-tazobactam and meropenem against Gram-positive anaerobic cocci. Only two (0.8 %) isolates of Bacteroides spp. showed a MIC ≥4 μg/mL...
December 23, 2023: Anaerobe
R Tamilselvan, A Immanuel Selwynraj
OBJECTIVES: Biogas production from Lignocellulosic Biomass (LB) via anaerobic digestion (AD) has gained attention for its potential in self-sustainability. However, the recalcitrance of LB cell walls pose a challenge to its degradability and biogas generation. Therefore, pretreatment of LB is necessary to enhance lignin removal and increase degradability. Among the different approaches, environmentally friendly biological pretreatment ispromising as it avoids the production of inhibitors...
December 23, 2023: Anaerobe
Jingrong Zhang, Yaqin Wei, Huizhen Qiu, Jiayi Han
OBJECTIVES: Anaerobic fungi are critical for nutrient digestion in the yak rumen. Although studies have reported the effects of passage at different time intervals on the community structure of yak rumen anaerobic fungi, it is unknown whether passage culture at different time intervals affects the microbial proteins of rumen anaerobic fungi and their functions. METHODS: Mycelium was obtained using the anaerobic continuous batch culture (CBC) of yak rumen fluid at intervals of 3 d, 5 d and 7 d...
December 2, 2023: Anaerobe
Domingo Fernández Vecilla, Mary Paz Roche Matheus, Mikel Urrutikoetxea Gutiérrez, Gotzon Iglesias Hidalgo, Cristina Aspichueta Vivanco, José Luis Díaz de Tuesta Del Arco
We described a case of a 65-year-old man with a brain abscess caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis and Eubacterium nodatum. The patient presented right central facial nerve palsy, mutism and right hemiparesis at the examination. The patient underwent a left frontal craniotomy with evacuation of the brain abscess. Specimens were collected for microbiological analysis and intravenous treatment was started with levetiracetam, dexamethasone, meropenem (1 g/8 h) and linezolid (600 mg/12 h). After identification of anaerobic bacteria the antibiotic treatment was changed to piperacillin/tazobactam (4 g/0,5 g/8 h), fulfilling 8 weeks of antibiotic with good clinical and radiological evolution...
November 23, 2023: Anaerobe
Cedric Delmon, Catherine Ouk, Magali Casellas, Audrey Prorot
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium perfringens is a well-known spore-forming bacterium that can resist the environment. A mixture of volatile fatty acids or thermal treatments can interact with these bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different volatile fatty acid concentrations and moderate heat treatment on Clostridium perfringens sporulation. METHODS: A pure culture of Clostridium perfringens type A in Duncan Strong medium was treated with a mixture of volatile fatty acids at several concentrations...
November 23, 2023: Anaerobe
Ga Young Noh, Yoon Soo Park, Si Hyun Kim, Sae Am Song, Jeong Hwan Shin
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of anaerobic blood culture in pediatric patients by comparing the detection rate and distribution of bacteria between aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 11,664 blood cultures obtained from children under the age of 14 between January 2013 and June 2020. The positive rate of total, aerobic, and anaerobic blood culture, as well as the species distribution of each blood culture bottle, were investigated...
November 20, 2023: Anaerobe
Jorge Ligero-López, Eduardo Rubio-Mora, Mario David Ruiz-Bastián, María Inmaculada Quiles-Melero, Juana Cacho-Calvo, Emilio Cendejas-Bueno
Infections from anaerobic microorganisms result from breached mucosal barriers, posing a significant mortality risk. A retrospective study at Hospital Universitario La Paz (Madrid) from 2010 to 2022 analyzed 491 (6.17 %) anaerobic bacteremia cases out of 7956 significant bacteremia cases among 171,833 blood culture requests. Bacteroides fragilis was the most frequently isolated species (28.3 %), followed by Clostridium perfringens (13.6 %). B. fragilis showed good susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanate (86 %), piperacillin/tazobactam (86 %), and metronidazole (87...
November 18, 2023: Anaerobe
Andrew M Skinner, Xing Tan, Colin Westman, Thomas Birris, Emily N Drwiega, Michael S Wang, Stuart Johnson
Among 23 patients with multiply recurrent Clostridiodies difficile infection (mrCDI) who received bezlotoxumab at the end of antibiotic treatment a sustained clinical response of 91 % at 30 days and 78 % at 90 days was achieved. Bezlotoxumab administered at the end of antibiotic treatment was effective in patients with mrCDI.
November 4, 2023: Anaerobe
Lu Bai, Jayoung Paek, Yeseul Shin, Hongik Kim, Si Hyun Kim, Jeong Hwan Shin, Joong-Ki Kook, Young-Hyo Chang
OBJECTIVE: The family Lachnospiraceae is affiliated with the order Clostridiales and was originally contained within Clostridial cluster XIVa. The members of Lachnospiraceae inhabiting the gut comprise the chemoorganotrophic genera, generating sundry short-chain fatty acids to supply energy to the host, and are considered to be related to obesity and gut health. METHODS: The polyphasic taxonomic approach was used to characterize the isolate YH-rum2234T . A detailed metabolic analysis was conducted to compare the novel isolate with related strains within the family Lachnospiraceae...
November 2, 2023: Anaerobe
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