Microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolism: Impacts on health, aging, and disease.
The intricate interplay between gut microbiota and the host is pivotal in maintaining homeostasis and health. Dietary tryptophan (TRP) metabolism initiates a cascade of essential endogenous metabolites, including kynurenine, kynurenic acid, serotonin, and melatonin, as well as microbiota-derived Trp metabolites like tryptamine, indole propionic acid (IPA), and other indole derivatives. Notably, tryptamine and IPA, among the indole metabolites, exert crucial roles in modulating immune, metabolic, and neuronal responses at both local and distant sites. Additionally, these metabolites demonstrate potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The levels of microbiota-derived TRP metabolites are intricately linked to the gut microbiota's health, which, in turn, can be influenced by age-related changes. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the cellular and molecular impacts of tryptamine and IPA on health and aging-related complications. Furthermore, we explore the levels of tryptamine and IPA and their corresponding bacteria in select diseased conditions, shedding light on their potential significance as biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
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